4.3 ENGLISH

Area of Article : ALL

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PUNE RESEARCH - An International Journal in English (ISSN 2454-3454) JIF 3.02

Editor-in-Chief

ABSTRACT

PUNE RESEARCH  

AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL IN ENGLISH

( ISSN 2454  -  3454  ONLINE ) (JIF 3.02)

 VOLUME 4 , ISSUE - 3  ( MAY-JUNE  2018 )

4.3.1 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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ECO-FEMINISM IN BARBARA KINGSOLVER’S PRODIGAL SUMMER

DR. S. Y. HONGEKAR

ABSTRACT

Barbara Kingsolver   is an American novelist, essayist and poet. She is also a freelance journalist and political activist.  Her work often focuses on topics such as social justice, biodiversity and the interaction between humans and their communities and environments. Kingsolver was born in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1955 and grew up in   Carlisle, Kentucky. Kingsolver's literary subjects are varied, but she often writes about places and situations with which she is familiar; many of her stories are based in places she has lived in, such as central Africa and Arizona. Feminism is a philosophy advocating equal economic, political, and social rights and opportunities for women. Eco-feminism as a social, political and academic movement focuses on the oppression of women and the exploitation of nature as being interconnected. It asserts the fundamental interconnectedness of all life. The novel focuses on environmental challenges like climate change, animal/species extinction and loss of biodiversity, use of pesticides etc. and the female protagonists’ ‘struggle with patriarchal system in society. Eco-feminism basically studies the interconnection of feminist and ecological issues, such as misogyny and deforestation in third world countries.  Ecological and Feminist issues do in fact overlap quite often; both are results of a male-dominant (or patriarchal) society.

Keywords: Eco-feminism, Barbara Kingsolver, Prodigal Summer 

4.3.2 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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INDIAN NOVELS IN ENGLISH: THE RISE AND POPULARITY

ANURAG PANDEY

ABSTRACT

Indian novels in English have generated a considerable amount of interest both in India and in English-speaking countries, particularly during India’s post-liberalization period since 1991. For India, this period has seen unparalleled consumption of global goods and exposure to international media, and has resulted in Indian writers writing in English (including writers of Indian origin) catching the attention of the Western world like never before. The nineteen nineties proved a significant period for the Indian novel written in English. This period saw some of the writers making a successful debut in creative writing as novelists and winning prestigious international award like Booker Prize and commonwealth Writers Prize. This period witnessed further consolidation of the ground won by the novel at the cost of other genres. More than the eighties, it is in the nineties that readers and critics paid their undivided attention to the Indian novel written in English. Referring to this Nanavati and Kar remark:“It is perhaps the only form of writing that instantly acquires a world-wide visibility as it is created” (14). Not only in India but all over the world, the novel is more read, more appreciated and even more marketed than poetry, “its traditional rival”. Significantly enough, at various conferences of Indian Association for Studies in Contemporary Literature, held in various universities of India, the majority of papers submitted were about the Indian English novel, especially the novel in the nineties. 

4.3.3 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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BALI: THE SACRIFICE: UNDERSTANDING THE NATURE OF VIOLENCE

DR. SHAILAJA B. WADIKAR

ABSTRACT

The first version of Bali: The Sacrifice was published in Kannada under the title– Hittina Hunja in1980 and was performed in both Kannada and Hindi. However, Karnad rendited the play in English, when he was commissioned by the Leicester Haymarket Theatre, England to write for them. This English version was performed at the theatre in 2002 and was published in 2004 along with The Dreams of Tipu Sultan by the OUP.   

4.3.4 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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MADMAN OR A MACHIAVELLIAN? A SCHEMATIC ANALYSIS OF TUGHLAQ IN GIRISH KARNAD’S TUGHLAQ

S. MANOJ

ABSTRACT

This research paper lays its eyes on Girish Karnad’s most-spoken-about character Tughlaq. The paper revolves around the character of Tughlaq who keeps his subjects, subordinates and foes alike guessing with his shift in temperament. His Machiavellian and sometimes eccentric qualities are also kept under the scanner in this research work. This article brings out instances where Tughlaq is at the top of his game making people around him go crazy with his not so stable mannerisms.    

Keywords: Tughlaq, Machiavellian, Idealism, Madness, Indian Literature, Girish Karnad.

4.3.5 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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M-LEARNING: PRACTICING WHATSAPP IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNING

DR. GAJANAN P. PATIL

ABSTRACT

Presently, electronic communication has been the most popular and accessible form adopted by almost all the students across the globe and especially in many developing countries. Today, mobile phone has been turned to be the friendliest tool for all the users. Social networking sites have appeared to be the most widely accessed and practiced medium in forming communication. The mobile phone device has invited larger attention of the second language learners. WhatsApp, being the widely popular social networking site has marked a dynamic state and has also invited attention of the researchers, educationists, and language practitioners to strategically adopt it to make teaching-learning process more flexible and accessible to learn foreign language. Recently studies have proved and underlined the significance of social media related mobile application WhatsApp and its very utility in English language learning classroom. WhatsApp, as the study highlights, appears as a parallel system to a learner in the form of availing foreign language learning conditions. The research paper focuses on how WhatsApp as an m-learning i.e. mobile based feature can prove its unique impression in and outside the classroom. It also appeals the stakeholders the need to explore the impact of the application on the users and thereby apprehend the timely demand to make teaching and learning process more functional and practice oriented. 

Keywords: Social networking, WhatsApp, mobile application, m-learning, researchers, educationists, teaching-learning,  flexible, 

4.3.6 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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PRODUCING OTHERS IN SELECT TRAVEL WRITINGS OF PRATIBHA RAY

SUPRIYA SUBHADARSINI SAHOO

ABSTRACT

This paper broadly focuses on the question regarding what does it mean to be a cosmopolitan travel writer? The term ‘traveller’ offers a positive and independent model of selfhood (Thubron 58). Michael Kowalewski argues, post-war travel writers have an “enriched sense of diversity and complexity of other cultures” and the post-touristic recognition of plurality calls “our collective ability to represent foreign people” into question (Kowalewski 10) and demands new approaches. The post-tourist turn to travel writing demonstrates heightened awareness of the politics of writing about another place and culture and of the problems inherent in representing the voices of the people encountered (Thompson 243). In this context Debbie Lisle argues that the cosmopolitan travel writers place cultural difference on a plane of equivalence - they locate, administer and celebrate difference within an accepted global order (Lisle 87). The present article explores the process of producing the other in Pratibha Ray’s Africa Nayika Nila Nadi (Africa’s Heroine the Nile River) and Swapnara Alaska (Dreamy Alaska).

Key Words: cosmopolitan travel writer, individuality, self-hood, othering.

4.3.7 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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TROPE OF POSTCOLONIALITY IN SALMAN RUSHDIE’S MIDNIGHT CHILDREN

DR. S. KARTHIK KUMAR & MUZAFAR AHMAD BHAT

ABSTRACT

Midnight’s Children’s magic realist format, deftly used by South American authors such as Miguel Angel Asturias, Alejo Carpentier and Gabriel Garcia Marquez, added a fresh generic momentum to the pallid fiction of the subcontinent. Revealingly, Rushdie pioneered a technique of forging an assortment of perspectives on the nation and interweaving multiple strands of its history, subverting the official versions. With his remarkable feat of melding postmodern techniques and postnational perspectives in his narratives, Rushdie stands out prominently in postcolonial literature – becoming perhaps the only lens through which the new crop of post-imperial subcontinental fiction is viewed. 

Keywords: Postcolonial, magic realism, postmodern, postnational, decent ring, history, subcontinent. 

4.3.8 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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IMPLICATION OF PROVERBS AS A TOOL OF CULTURAL IDENTITY IN CHINUA ACHEBE’S THINGS FALL APART

RAJESH G. MASKE

ABSTRACT

This research paper attempts to explore Chinua Achebe’s use of Igbo proverbs and idioms as a dynamic cultural tool to glorify the tarnished and neglected pristine African Culture. Proverbs are a natural part of the speech of all cultures and traditional societies. They contain the wisdom of the past generation. They are the gift to the future generation to lead the life wisely. They are of philosophical and moral nature. They are conveyed in a few words but in a forceful ways. They are the accumulation of observation of human beings, animals, plants, natural phenomena, folklore, values, perceptions, thoughts and feelings of society. Chinua Achebe, a renowned African writer has made prolific use of proverbs and popular adages in his novels than any other African novelist. His novels are woven around the Igbo culture and Igbo art. “Among the Ibo the art of conversation is regarded very highly, and proverbs are the palm- oil with which words are eaten.” (TFA-6)  According to Igbos, a good speaker is he who uses traditional proverbs with skill and wisdom. Indeed, for the Igbos the core of conversation is the appropriate use of proverbs.  These proverbs contain truth, consolations and a frame of reference for a whole people. They also reflect the good and the lean time through which their societies have passed.

Keywords:  Implication, Culture, proverb, Igbo, Clan.

4.3.9 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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APPLICATION OF ROLE PLAY IN TEACHING BUSINESS CORRESPONDENCE

KISHOR R. THAKARE

ABSTRACT

As a teacher of English from a technical institute, belongs to rural region finds role play or situational dialogue productive, entertaining and interesting activity to teach writing business letters at the level of third year engineering. After learning the basic corpus of sentences, formal vocabulary and format of business letters, the major part of situation, context and case comprehension remains.  For this, researcher finds that the cultivation of one's imagination and skill of giving embodiment to the same is the most important task. 

Key Words: Role play, productive, entertaining and interesting, situation, business letters, context and case, imagination.

4.3.10 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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A STUDY DEVELOPING SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING SKILLS AND LEARNER AUTONOMY THROUGH WEBLOG

DR. AGNEL I. ROY

ABSTRACT

Self-directed learning (SDL) is a method of instruction used increasingly in adult education within tertiary instructions. Self-directed learning can be defined in terms of the amount of responsibility the learner accepts for his or her own learning. The self-directed learning takes control and accepts the freedom to learn what they view as important for themselves. The degree of control the learner is willing to take over their own learning will depend on their attitude, abilities and personality characteristics.

4.3.11 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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THE ORAL APPROACH AND SITUATIONAL LANGUAGE TEACHING

D. JAYALASKHMI & DR. V. PERUVALLUTHI

ABSTRACT

Language teaching came as a profession in the twentieth century. The method concept in teaching practices based on a particular theory of language. The method of teaching practices provides a more effective teaching to the students. Language as a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations and the social transactions between individuals. Language is seen as a tool for the creation and maintenance of social relations. The theory of language underlying the oral and Situational Language Teaching can be characterized as a type of British “structuralism”. Speech is regarded as the basis of language, and structure is viewed as being at the heart of speaking ability.

4.3.12 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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THE IMPORTANCE OF EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION SKILLS

DR. G. VENUGOPAL

ABSTRACT

Language is one of the basic means of communication. It is the best mode of self-expression and building of sound relationships with others. It is one of the most powerful reflections of how we think and feel about ourselves and others. It is through effective communication, we can go for a vast impact. It is one of the steps forward for improving communication skills. The present paper deals with the importance of effective communication. It is effective communication that leads a person towards success. If we observe keenly, it can be personal, social, professional or national. Poor communication makes us to face lots of problems. Concerning all these aspects and the importance of communication, the present paper discusses the following aspects: The Communication Process, Barriers of Effective Communication, Steps to be taken for Enhancing Communication Skills and Importance of Feedback.

4.3.13 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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ENHANCING LEARNING ABILITIES WITH A WEAPON OF HUMOUR AMONG THE PUPILS

YESUPAKU DINESH

ABSTRACT

Humour is an educational setting, it results the variety of positive functions for making people laugh and it builds group cohesion (among the students of the class). Wherever humour is occurring then most of the pupils will respond positively to learn the subject matter of the class. Humour is sometimes inappropriate for teachers to target the students by making fun of their ignorance and beliefs, but it is appropriate thing.  There are some ways of humour they listed in a comprehensive related funny stories (related to subject matter), class materials, humorous comments, puns, riddles, jokes, and audio visual aids etc...Using too much humour, aggressive humour disparaging students as well as damages the credibility of the class. Humour improves the exam score because teacher could have taught the grammar, literature (all the parts of it) and communication skills etc… which helps there for their career development. Some time humour makes stress relief of disturbed and stressed students of the class. Must Provide humour examples and tasks for creating interest in the minds of the pupils or play into the language classroom.

Key Words: Humour, positive response, literature, communication skills, traits.

4.3.14 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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SPARTACUS: THE VOICE OF PROTEST

DR. SHAILAJA B. WADIKAR

ABSTRACT

The whole play revolves round five actions, that is, capturing of the people, selling of these captives in the market, slaves toiling, gladiator-slaves fighting in the arena, and crucifixion of the slaves for the act of rebellion. Instead of dialogues, cries, shouts and noises were used in these scenes. It is the first play, where Sircar has used human body to develop the action of the play. However, for this experiment, a lot of training, practice, and patience were devoted by the team. The members responded positively to the call of the group-leader. The hard work on the part of both the director and the members ultimately leads to the creation of the epoch-making play, a milestone in Sircar’s canon. The play Spartacus deals with the story of the Roman slave revolt in 71 B.C. It is based on the novel with the same title by Howard Fast one of Sircar’s favourite books. He has a desire to dramatise it and could do it only with his shift from the conventional to the Third Theatre.

4.3.15 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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LONELINESS AND YEARNING FOR COMPANY IN RABINDRANATH TAGORE’S THE POSTMASTER

S. MANOJ

ABSTRACT

This research paper studies loneliness in the characters presented in Rabindranath Tagore’s The Postmaster. It draws instances from the short story to cite how loneliness plays a major role in the lives of its central characters. The research paper also explores how expectations always end in dismay with reference to the short story of Rabindranath Tagore.   

Keywords: Indian literature, Isolation, Loneliness, Love, Family, Rabindranath Tagore. 

4.3.16 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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GENDER POLITICS AND SEXUALITY IN THE GOD OF SMALL THINGS

DR. KIRTIKA SINGH

ABSTRACT

Arundhati Roy’s debut novel The God of Small Things tries to bring out the ‘utopian’ possibilities of eroticism and sexual experience, especially where this experience is socially impermissible. In doing so, she analyses the politics of desire which germinate in the private sensitive realm of personal sexual relations, are not disassociated from the world of public politics. The God of Small Things have protagonists who are ready to break the social laws and die for desire, for love Ammu of the earlier generation slings across caste/class divisions to engage an erotic desire for the  untouchable carpenter, the ‘God of Small Things’ , Velutha Ammu’s resolute dedication to her ‘deadly attraction’ for the untouchable Velutha as lacking the true grit that her character had promised—true grit being tantamount to the truly political in a sphere outside of the personal Velutha, though fostering anti caste/ class inhalations in love/ desire, is seen as a more fully committed political being because of  his involvement in the communist uprisings in the state. The politics of Ammu’s perspective—and therefore perhaps her less ‘intricate’ choices—in terms of her gender, is largely ignored.

Keywords:  gender, transgression, desire, and eroticism. 

4.3.17 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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MARXIAN AESTHETICS OF DISPLACEMENT IN THOMAS PYNCHON’S AGAINST THE DAY

DR. S. KARTHIK KUMAR & MUZAFAR AHMAD BHAT

ABSTRACT

Loosely set in the years from the end of the nineteenth century until after the first world war, Against the Day can be tentatively broken up into four relatively major strands (Clute, 2006): First, the “Airshop Boys Cluster”: seems to be somewhat framed by a bunch of youthful adventurer balloonists called the “Chums of Chance” that keep resurfacing, moving around the globe on missions that are recorded and published in a series of adventure books, all the while being steered and controlled by a mysterious “Organization” (with capital “O”). Second, the “Western Revenge Cluster”: One Webb Traverse, a mine foreman whose secret anarchist habit is blowing up the capitalist tycoons’ power lines and railroad bridges, is killed by guns the particular tycoon he is working for – fittingly named Scarsdale Vibe – has hired. Vibe comes across as an almost comic book plutocrat who is busy exploiting the US immigrant underclasses, buying off scientists and state officials and hiring mercenaries to win the war against a growing anarchist resistance.

Key words: politics, alienation, society, commodity, capitalism, organisational politics, anarchist resistance.

4.3.18 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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JOURNALISM AND COLUMN WRITING IN INDIA AND THE CONTRIBUTION OF KHUSHWANT SINGH AS A COLUMNIST

SONAJI B. RAJPUT

ABSTRACT

The rise of column writing supported the leaders to voice against the system in the beginning but with the demand of time, the objectives of column writing keeps changing. In the context of India, column writing echoed radical social reforms in the later part of 19th century whereas the same field served different purpose in 20th century. Khushwant Singh, who is known as the maverick journalist has marked a different benchmark in the field of journalism. He made people to wait for newspapers to read the columns only. In this paper, genuine effort has been made to highlight the rise of journalism in India and to mention the contribution of Khushwant Singh as a columnist.

Key Words: Journalism, Column writing, Opinion, Issues

4.3.19 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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ELEMENTS OF HORROR AND TERROR IN THE STORIES OF BOND

SHAMEEM QUADER & HEMENDRA SINGH CHANDALIA

ABSTRACT

In today's fast paced era of technological innovation and scientific intentions and discovery, dwelling upon the paranormal activities that results into horror sensation and scary feelings appears a bit unusual kind of task as to whether people in general are readily available to accommodate their open minds full of latest updates of world's smartest gadgets with those supernatural, mysterious and eerie kind of elements. It all seems credible when we come across Ruskin Bond's sharing his own experience of seeing the apparition of his late father-Aubrey Bond. Bond’s selected stories replete with elements of terror have undoubtedly been successful in drawing his peruses from that beautiful ambience of oak and pine and cedar to the mysterious woods witnessing the frightening environment full of creepy horrifying surroundings. Bond has given a realistic touch to the description of the scenario making the readers awestruck and his quality of making unbelievable a believable one made him the Connoisseur of the mysterious and macabre.

Keywords: horror sensation, supernatural, mysterious, eerie elements of terror, creepy horrifying surroundings.

4.3.20 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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ENGLISH SPEAKING SKILLS IN THE HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS OF SEMI ENGLISH MEDIUM SCHOOLS IN BEED AND LATUR DISTRICT OF MARATHWADA REGION

KANCHAN R BAHETI

ABSTRACT

The objective of the present research paper is to investigate and find out the English speaking levels of the semi English medium students of Beed and Latur District of Marathwada region in Maharashtra. In order to chalk out the complexities and hurdles of such students the paper also tries to bring to light the factors affecting the language acquisition in spoken form in the secondary schools of the region. The researcher has gone through the major reports on the ways English has been taught in the schools in the country and the achievements in the language skills of the students of these schools. The study have conducted random interviews with open ended questions with the Parents of the two districts regarding the speaking levels of the students of higher secondary students of Semi English Medium schools. The results of the discussions concluded ‘low’ speaking proficiency level of these students. The paper further suggests few practical solutions for the students to apply and motivate themselves to and develop their English speaking skills.

Key Words: SSA ( Sarva Siksha Abhiyan), ICT( Information and Communication Technology), ELIPS( English Language Initiative for Primary School), IELTS (International English Language Testing System)

4.3.21 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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LITERARY ANALYSIS OF DR. BABASAHEB AMBEDKAR’S BUDDHA AND HIS DHAMMA

DR. UMESH B. BANSOD

ABSTRACT

The Buddha and His Dhamma is the last creation of Dr.Ambedkar and it is the culmination of his writing. The book reveal his literary genius and presents a very different Ambedkar. The books shows difference between Dr.Ambedkar and Babasaheb Ambedkar. The scholars who study Ambedkarite literature will find abundance of literary devices employed by Dr.Ambedkar is this work. The language of a trained barrister here becomes juicy and lucid. Dr.Ambedkar never appears so romantic as in The Buddha and His Dhamma. The brief discussion makes it clear that the writer has capacity to produce world class literary work. The greatness of the books can be understood from the fact that it is read as the Bible by millions of Buddhists  and Dr.Ambedkar’s followers across the world. It is not mere a book it has been the way of living for millions of dalits it India.

Key words : Buddha and His Dhamma , magnum opus , literary devices , euphemism 

4.3.22 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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THE SUBALTERNS CAN SPEAK: A STUDY OF THE PROTAGONISTS IN BOOKER PRIZE WINNING NOVELS OF ARUNDHATI ROY, KIRAN DESAI AND ARAVIND ADIGA

ANUJA S. NAIK & DR. VIJAY F. NAGANNAWAR

ABSTRACT

Subalternity is one of the prominent features discussed in post-colonial theories and literature. Literature is used as a medium to voice the sufferings, pain, trauma, and grievances of the subalterns. However, post-colonial writings have also been used to voice the demand for social justice, equality, freedom and resistance in an attempt to counter the dictatorial structures of caste, class, gender and racial discrimination, prejudice and ill-treatment. As such subaltern voices which were otherwise the oppressed, silent, marginalized and struggling for their survival, emerged as rebellion voices of self-assertion. These subaltern issues of both subjugation and resistance have been portrayed in recent Indian English novels. The present paper attempts to explore the representation of subaltern voices as rebel voices in Booker prize winning novels of Arundhati Roy, Kiran Desai and Aravinda Adiga.

Key Words: Subaltern, oppressed resistance, rebellion, self-assertion

4.3.23 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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SPEECHES AS LITERATURE: A CONSIDERATION OF THE SPEECHES OF DR B R AMBEDKAR AND DR. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.

JAYANT R. SALVE & DR. ASHOK CHASKAR

ABSTRACT

The term Literature has been defined variously by scholars and academicians. Some definitions restrict the scope of literature to only classic texts belonging to a “canon”, a word which itself is a vaguely defined term. Some limit literature to only written texts and hardly take oral texts into consideration. Some consider oral and written both as literature and uphold the legacy of orature, or oral literature found in the folk forms. In the modern times literature is assumed to include a vast body of formal writings like newspaper articles,  news- letters, written material produced in various disciplines such as Law, Politics, Sciences, other subjects in Humanities etc. There has been a controversy as to the exact definition of Literature. The boundary line between what is and what is not literature is difficult to be drawn. But basically there is a consensus that literature is a verbal expression of human thoughts and emotions aimed at entertaining, educating, and informing the reader or audience. 

4.3.24 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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THE DYNAMICS OF INDIAN AND KANNADA THEATRE

S. GOVINDAPPA

ABSTRACT

Theatre is the life breath of all arts, since, by its very nature, it focuses on life and living, its meaning and purpose, its follies and foibles, in as wide a canvas as possible within the confines and limitations of the stage. Theatre brings alive real life as real drama, using the wings of fantasy to colour ordinary and hitherto trivial things, ballooning them up into a wholesome whole, so that we could see ourselves for what we are or what we are not, in terms of the larger picture of life around us.

4.3.25 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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SOCIO – ECONOMIC REFORMS: A STUDY ON THE TRIBAL PEOPLE IN INDIA

DR. P. MARIAMMAL

ABSTRACT

The tribal as a community. It is known as society man living the restricted parameters is known as the sociological structure. To emphasize this point Pascal kippered says, that ‘to gain the specified general aims, corresponding modes were brought out among men, which is the society”. Through the policy of interdependence all man are interdependent. Nothing can be activated without depending on the others. The links between the individual and the inclination towards the group dividers the social structure. This development of the society can be called as the traits of the society. Hence it is for this reason that sociology examines the individual men and man-made society. Social mobility in society, the restrictions, changes, in different status of development and their upligtment can also been seen in this context. In accordance with this, this chapter deals with the structure of the society of the paliyans and the Kattunaykans under the headings-family, marriages. Food, clothing, habitat, the varied ways of the use of ornaments, entertainments, hygiene, festivals, the state of education and the social-changes. The culture habit and behavior of a man rests on the environment where he is put-up. Man of the earlier days did not live in solitude. He shared the food, that they got by handing and fulfilled his needs in co-operation with others. Hence the humans lived together and helped one another. The people of lived with civization and tradition. In course of time people used language as a means for the communication of ideas. It is by the hardship and responsibility of many that justice and righteousness took the upper hand and a wonderful society came into existence. Added to these qualities are the traits like-happiness, suffering, conghict, jealousy and doing to others grew among the humans.

4.3.26 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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MARGINALIZED WOMAN IN WILLA CATHER’S MY MORTAL ENEMY

DR. N. VIJAYAKUMARI

ABSTRACT

Cather’s fiction demonstrates an understanding and interest in revealing the consequences of gender roles. Therefore, it is important to study Cather by making a connection between her novels and the tension and turmoil that existed because of the changing roles for men in America. President Theodore Roosevelt stood as an example to males of the “man’s man” who wielded the big stick and marched powerfully into battle. The then American President, Roosevelt encouraged men to be strong and courageous, and not to be weak and feminine. During the Gilded Age in American history, social conventions encouraged men to be the protectors and providers, and men understood that success in life came from acting within these conventions. However, the woman stepped onto the stage and advocated women’s right to independence and equality. Gender conventions provided men and women a rubric to follow that helped them to understand their place in society. But woman began to display gender characteristics commonly associated with men, making the early twentieth century in America a time of confusion concerning gender roles.

4.3.27 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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EFFEMINATE FATHERS IN THE NOVELS OF JANE AUSTEN

K. BALAJI SUNDHARAM

ABSTRACT

In this paper I am going to focus on the effeminate father characters in Mr. Woodhouse  in Emma, Mr. Bennet in Pride and Prejudice and Sir Walter Elliot in Persuasion. In the majority works of Jane Austen we can encounter the appearance of unconventional principal parental characters. Many times we can notice the existence of some exaggerated figures that are unable to balance their parenting features found in the protagonist’s families. Jane Austen had given   the common ideas about the exact duties and responsibilities of men and women. Jane Austen had given us even some unmanly fathers. Readers enjoy the social criticism which lies in the inner layer of Jane Austen's text.

Key Words: Effeminate, Parental care, Irresponsible, Luxury.