3.6 ENGLISH

Area of Article : ALL

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PUNE RESEARCH - An International Journal in English (ISSN 2454-3454) JIF 3.02

Editor-in-Chief

ABSTRACT

PUNE RESEARCH  

AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL IN ENGLISH

( ISSN 2454  -  3454  ONLINE ) (JIF 3.02)

 VOLUME 3 , ISSUE - 6  ( NOV-DEC  2017 )

3.6.1 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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KHUSHWANT SINGH’S SATIRICAL GOALS AS DIRECTED TOWARDS THE ATROCITIES OF THE SOCIAL MILIEU PICTURED IN HIS FICTIONAL WORLD: AN ANALYSIS

DR. S. CHELLIAH

ABSTRACT

This paper attempts to project Khushwant Singh not only as a writer of history and fiction but also as a cultured humanist using ‘satire and comedy’ as a social corrective, thereby making fiction as an affirmative, positive and vital aspect of his comic vision and shows how Singh, cherishing great value for Indian art and culture, has made his literary creation spontaneously grow out of the grass roots of the social milieu as his experience of rural India is the base of his creative endeavour. It neatly analyses how far Khushwant Singh’s satirical goals are directed towards the atrocities of the social milieu picturized in his fictional world.

Key Words: cultured humanist, comic vision, literary scenario, creative endeavour humorist, satirical goal, Sardonic wit.

3.6.2 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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THE CELLULOID SAGA OF RABINDRANATH TAGORE

DR. JAGRUTI S. VYAS

ABSTRACT

Cinema and Literature are the two different ways to fascinate and influence human psyche. A successful amalgam of both is inextricably fruitful. Since the inception of cinema, literature has fascinated creative filmmakers endlessly. Most of the notable films which first brought Indian Cinema an International fame were based on the great works of literature. The confluence of the two made the cinematic land rich and fertile yielding plentiful harvest for the cineastes. There is a galaxy of such writers whose works are best for cinematic adaptations and Tagore is one of them. Tagore was a gifted actor and was very enthusiastic about giving a new tone to the Bengali Stage. The present paper tries to highlight the fact that Tagore, who is known more as a writer, a Nobel Laureate is, though unknown to the masses, one of the most cinematically adapted writers of all the times. What makes him so special is his amazing expertise in all the three arts needed for successful dramatic presentation i.e. Music, Writing and Painting (visual quality). There is a tremendous scope in his works to imagine and re-interpret the things resulting in the overwhelming response of the film makers to his short stories and other works. No wonder, More than 100 of his works have been adapted to full length feature films. The paper shows the dynamic relationship between his literature and cinema.

Key words: Cinema, Literature, Stage, visual presentation, cinematic adaptation, re-interpretation.

3.6.3 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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TEACHING / LEARNING OF ENGLISH IN INDIA: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES

DR. RACHANA

ABSTRACT

The teaching of English in India dates back to the early 19th century and was initially associated with the energetical spirit of the missionaries. English is the Elite class language, but learning and teaching, language is faced with many problems ranging from rural and underdeveloped areas to mother tongue interference, psychological fear, etc.. The purpose of this paper is to explore and describe the problems, prospects and future of learning and teaching of English in India. The paper highlights the challenges which English Language learners and teachers face and equally offers solutions. Essentially, effective teaching and learning of English will be realistic only when both the learned and learner demonstrate readiness to pay the sacrifices for its attainment

Key words- teaching , learning, English Language

3.6.4 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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A STUDY OF INDIAN WOMAN WRITERS FROM TRADITION TO MODERNITY

DR. G. VENUGOPAL

ABSTRACT

In the ancient times, Indian Woman was regarded as an embodiment of power i.e. Shakti. The girls enjoyed equal opportunities as the boys had previously. The Vedic period observed no discrimination between boys and girls. The Indian Woman held eminent position and was honoured in the past. But gradually, i.e. in the post-Vedic period, there was a decline in the status of woman in the society. Slowly and Steadily, she began to hold minor position. She was regarded as secondary and besides, she was treated as second sex. She was to be obedient to her husband, however he was. She had to accept and practice the real virtues of the ideal Indian wife. As submissive she was as ideal she was regarded. She was embodiment of tolerance and sacrifice. She was Sita, Shakuntala, Savitri, who had to suffer no fault of her own. She was subjected to self-immolation or Sati.

3.6.5 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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CONFLEX IN DIASPORIC LIVING AS POTRAYED IN CYRIL DABYDEEN THE JET LAG

R. VISWANATHAN

ABSTRACT

Cyril Dabydeen himself has more than homelands India being his ancestral home from where his ancestors immigrated to the Caribbean and he was immigrated to Canada in 1970.He completed his studies in Lakehead University. Cyril Dabydeen written sixteen other books, five  stories stories ,eight collection of poetry and the novels  published in the U.K, his one the short story collection ‘My Brahmin Days" in his short story I have selected the short stories "Jet Lag" He got a Guyana prize for Fiction (2007). His works reflect an ambiguity, an ambivalence that distinguishes the immigrant’s experiences share with the adopted society. The stories show the immigrant families attempts to come to terms with their sense of difference in the English Canadian Ontario and often focus on the issues of the generational gap and the change of culture indicative of a multicutural society. Cyril Dabydeen received the exemplary award from the Guyana cultural Association of New York for his accomplishments as a Guyanese- Canadian writer of poetry, short stories, novels, essays, compiler of anthologies and for his work as an educator and the race relations professional. In his  My Brahmin Days and Other Stories closely observed, finely ironic stories confront  Dabydeen’s Asian and Caribbean identity with his life experience of life in Canada. The author creates a vibrant picture of the Guyanese Hindu Community struggling for a place in what is for Devan a confusingly multi- racial country. Most of ethnic writers in Canada For eg. Their process  of  differentiation to create ethnic identity Cyril Dabydeen , Rohinton Mistry, Uma Prameswaran and ethnic identities by representing Guyana and India in their works.

Keywords: Nostalgia,  Kalapani, Immigration

3.6.6 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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THE ROLE OF THE HERO AND HEROIC IN ABDUL RAHMAN MUNIF’S NOVEL CITIES OF SALT

A'SIM NA'AJI ABBASS MOHAMMED RAGEH

ABSTRACT

Munif is considered a realist novelist whose distinct achievement is his unusual treatment of the hero and the heroic in his novels. He draws his characters from real life, in which romantic heroism is absent. In Munif’s novels, the hero fails to be heroic, whereas some minor characters belonging to the poor class are invested with heroic qualities which appear only on occasion. This paper attempts to depict the treatment of the hero and heroic in the first volume of Munif’s quintet of Cities of the salt novel. It will study some central and minor characters in this volume, focusing on their function in their societies, as well as in the novel itself with the image of heroism in which Munif represents them.

Key Words: Hero, Heroic, Wadi al-Uyoun, Miteb al-Hadhal, Ibn Rashid, Mufaddi al-Jadaan and Dr. al- Mahmalji.

3.6.7 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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THE JUNGLE BOOK : A STUDY ON “LIGHT SKIN DARK SKIN” PREJUDICE

MOUSUMI KUNDU

ABSTRACT

This diligent inquiry has been attempted to show how Mowgli, a man-cub  remains protected in the jungle, full of hungry animals in Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book .Usually such kind of  safe is  interpreted as the humanity on the part of the sub human creatures .The main objective of this investigation is to probe deep into the struggle of psychic representation resulting from the skin color where Mowgli represents white skinned people and the animals stands for the black. Power is associated with those post colonial hierarchy characterized by the light skinned people ; and the dark skinned people are considered to be less qualified to negotiate the global strategy of equality. This article is concluded with how this light skin dark skin prejudice saves Mowgli ‘s life in The Jungle Book.

Keywords Post Colonial, Hierarchy, Hegemony, Artefact 

3.6.8 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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CULTURAL CONFLICT IN BHARTI MUKHERJEE’S NOVEL JASMINE

NAEEM UL HAQ

ABSTRACT

Etymologically Diaspora means the dispersion of people from their homelands. Diasporic literature of the twenty first century is supplemented by the issues of, transnationalism, diaspora, hybridity and identity crisis. These issues are reflected in the writings of Indian writers like Salman Rushdie, V.S.Naipaul,  Amitabh Ghosh, Bharati Mukherjee and many others. Bharati Mukherjee in her novels attempts to bridge the gulf between original homeland and adopted place.This paper aims at studying Bharti Mukherjee’s novel Jasmine so as to highlight the author’s treatment of the eastern and the western culture in the novel, to study about women novelists of South Asian Diaspora. The paper will also highlight the culture, religion and society of the homeland of different characters in the novel and the culture, religion and society of the host land of the different characters in the novels under study viz., USA.  The focus will be on the issues of Diaspora and settlement as faced by different characters in different countries where they migrate viz., USA.

Keywords: Diaspora, transnationalism, hybridity, assimilation, identity crisis

3.6.9 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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LESSING’S THE SUMMER BEFORE THE DARK : A STUDY IN FEMINIST OUTLOOK

DR. RAJKUMAR MANDAL

ABSTRACT

Doris Lessing’s feminist sympathetic, though she has denied them from time to time are too well known to need describing. Indeed her name been regarded as being synonymous with Feminism, particularly with feminism of the Third Wave. She herself has of late been strenuously denying belonging to any group. But whatever she might say now, quite early in her long career she had become associated with Feminism. For example, the widely accepted authoritative book on modern criticism, The Readers Guide by Selden and Widdowson, quite firmly places her with in this movement. But it is an undeniable fact of life that people changes as time passes and one cannot blame Lessing for having grown out of Feminism just as she has grown beyond communism or science-fiction or Sufism. A novel like The Summer Before the Dark puts her beyond the restricted pale of Feminism into a wider literary world.

Keywords  1)feminist,  2) feminism, 3)communism, 4) Sufism

3.6.10 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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SPIRITUAL AND CULTURAL RESPONSIVENESS OF MYSTICS

DR. MANZOOR AHMAD NAJAR

ABSTRACT

This paper focuses on how spirituality connects to cultural identity of a person and how it relates to culturally responsive teaching in the society. It focuses on the development of a culturally responsive epistemology that suggests experience and teaching of a religion is both a spiritual and an intellectual pursuit. This spiritual pursuit opens up an identity for the seekers of a particular religionsay Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, etc. who are also called as mystics. Mysticism and Sufism, for instance, are the similar responses which are quite largely being discussed as separate from their sources i.e. Christianity and Islam. For critical multicultural teaching to have transformative power, it must engage in and help seekers explore and reclaim their cultural and religious identity. This process often touches on the spiritual, as it engages the seekers’ religious imagination and spirituality.In this paper I am trying to attempt that Mysticism, Sufism, Buddhism, etc. are the responses of an individual (mystic) who verifies and testifies the essence of his particular religion. And the mystics have such a spiritual elevation that their practices and ways of life gains them a particular cultural and religious identity. In this paper by relating religion and the path of a mystic, I am trying to evaluate that being a Mystic is being a truthful follower of a religion but evolves a different spiritual and cultural identity.

Key words: Spirituality, Cultural Identity, Mysticism, Seeker, Sufism.

3.6.11 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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BLACK WOMAN’S AND DALIT WOMAN’S SOCIAL BOYCOTT UNDER SEXUAL VIOLENCE AND EXPLOITATION (With special reference to Maya Angelou’s and Meena Kandasamy’s selected Poetry)

NARAYAN L. JADHAV

ABSTRACT

In this inhuman temperament the maximum female had been entangled and they got injustice, violence, domination and all types of exploitations. Sexual violence and insult reduce the name and fame and courage of human being; the woman’s courage and name. to encourage woman and for woman sublimation against the male dominated society, the woman herself has written literature and express  her views, experiences, ideas and injustices against the male dominated society. Maya Angelou and Mena Kandasamy had composed the poems against the patriarchy and male dominated society who are from America and India respectively. Maya Angelou has expressed the injustice and violence of Black woman against the American male dominated society where as Meena Kandasamy has expressed injustice, exploitations and violence of Dalit woman against the Indian Casteism and Patriarchy.

Key words: Social boycott, Sexual violence and Exploitation, inhuman temperament, injustice, inequality, harassment, domination.

3.6.12 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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A CRITIQUE OF ‘HUMAN RELATIONSHIPS’ IN DAVID WILLIAMSON’S TRAVELLING NORTH AND AFTER THE BALL

ALTAF AHMAD BHAT

ABSTRACT

David Williamson’s dramatic oeuvre is multidimensional. He says many things simultaneously. His work is what Roland Barthes calls ‘writerly’ texts full of potential and so needs a professional readership. The present study focus on human relations: marital bond; kinships; love affairs; and it is emphasized how these relations affect overall human existence whether it is individual life or collective socio-cultural makeup. These associations and correspondence can either make or mar life depends on their nature and understanding. If relations are built up on the pattern of ethical code, then altruistic life taking care of all may be expected, otherwise egoistic people prowls on everything but for their own selfish ends. The same is being attempted at to demonstrate in this paper through textual illustrations and critical assessment.

Key words:  Relation, male, mother, wife, female, family, society, behavior and responsibility.

3.6.13 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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R. K. NARAYAN AND HIS CHARACTERS : A PERSPECTIVE

DR. K. KOTESWARA RAO

ABSTRACT

Narayan creates a world of his own experience, tinted with humour which is the hallmark of Narayan’s genius. Every character drawn in his novels is convincing and realistic. Narayan reflects the spirit of the age in his later novels, because his insight into life grows deeper, and he judged the Indian life of his time in a dispassionate manner. His art lies in artistic impersonality and interpretation of Indian life aesthetically with unprejudiced objectivity. Yet Narayan has presented even simple characters with perfect accuracy, and they turn out to be true representatives of Indian society. This makes his novels more acclaimed among the common people.

3.6.14 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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ENGLISH FOR PROFESSIONAL STUDENTS: DIFFICULTY AND DISPARITY FACED BY KASHMIR PROFESSIONAL (ENGINEERING COMPUTER / MANAGEMENT) STUDENTS IN THE PROFICIENT USE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

SOBIAL JAHANE GAZZALIE

ABSTRACT

In this paper we will focus on Kashmiri professional (engineering/computer/management) student community, who for their professional careers need English language at both local as well as global levels. This paper will first highlight the importance of English in today’s multi-corporate world of trade and commerce visa-vis the need of such proficient learning/teaching and use of it for Kashmiri professional students. The main focus will be on the difficulty and disparity which the professional students face in their speech while using the English language. It will focus on the reasons; why professional students lack interest in learning of English language or communication skills. In that this paper will look what tentative pedagogies can be adopted to develop their interest in learning of English language? The present paper will also highlight the importance of English and how English can reduce the unemployment by learning communication skills. It will also help the people to attain a respectable job through communicative skills. It will look at the different ways of learning English/communication skills through communicative activities and dynamic solutions to ease the process of learning.

Keywords: Communication skills, professional (engineering / computer / management), proficient, proficiency, practical learning, native, listening skill, professional courses, communicator, context, difficulty, disparity etc.

3.6.15 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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MARITAL DISHARMONY IN R. K. NARAYAN’S THE GUIDE

DR. UMESH PATIL

ABSTRACT

Rasipuram krishnaswamy Iyer Narayanswami shortened R. K. Narayan was born on the 10th October, 1906. He is a versatile writer. He has given a new direction to the art of fiction writing. He is among the three pillars of Indian Writing in English. He was born in a Brahmin family who were the worshippers of Siva and Vishnu. He is well-known Indian English novelist. His novels grapple with contemporary themes. His novel The Guide is a novel which deals with the woman’s identity in Indian culture. The novel is filmed. The film is also popular. R. K Narayan’s women characters break the image of traditional woman. These women are fearless and challenge the men. Narayan presents traditional woman with modern sophisticated manners. His women characters like Rosie, in the Guide, Savitri in, The Dark Room, Daisy, in The Painter of signs present western ideas and rebel when they know that they are instrument in the hands of men. The man-woman relationship is always a theme of discussion. The Indian Woman plays subordinate role in Indian society. Man has given her a secondary place.

Keywords: marital disharmony, identity crisis, myth, relationship, quest, rebellion, subversion, culture, moral values. 

3.6.16 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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THE AFRICAN AMERICAN WRITER’S USE OF ART TO PROVE THEIR HUMANITY

S. BAVETRA & K. ABIRAMI

ABSTRACT

This paper highlights focuses on   “The African -American writer’s use of art to prove their humanity”. This view was substantiated by analyzing various works of Afro- American writers from various periods down the time. This analysis reflects the inhuman activities that took place in the past and also depicts the immense pain and intense longing of the black writers, for freedom . By focusing on “the influence of experience of slavery” in various works, the brutal practice of slavery was projected. African slaves undergone cruel experiences due to the barbarous treatment of their masters. By reminding those cruelties, various authors had tried to make us listen to the black’s unheard voice of suffering which screams that they are also humans. Their sufferings made them to lose their originality and individuality. Various authors like Alice Walker, Lorraine Hansberry, Phillis Wheatley  had portrayed the death of the  artistic skills of talented black women who went unnoticed or unheard of now. Thus the paper portrays the human qualities killed by the cruelty of slavery.

Keywords: Afro-Americans, art, creativity, suppression, slavery

3.6.17 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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AN ARCHETYPAL STUDY OF AMISH TRIPATHI'S NOVELS THE IMMORTALS OF MELUHA, THE SECRET OF THE NAGAS AND CHINAU ACHEBE'S THINGS FALL APART

S. SARAVANAN & M. NANDHINI

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the first two part of the Shiva's trilogy: The Immortals of Meluha  and The Secret of the Nagas by Amish Tripathi in relation with the novel Things Fall Apart by Chinau Achebe. By the application of archetypal criticism, it highlights the common beliefs and perceptions of the characters in these novels that belong to two different civilizations. Moreover, based on the principles of Reader-response criticism the researcher generated Things Fall Apart as an intertext.

Key Words: trilogy, archetype, perception, reader-response

3.6.18 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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PRODUCTIVITY AS BASIC PREMISE OF OBJECTIVISM IN AYN RAND’S NOVELS

DR. PRADIP. G. SONAWANE

ABSTRACT

Productive work is the process by which man’s consciousness controls his existence, a constant process of acquiring knowledge and shaping matter to fit one’s purpose of translating an idea into physical form. Productiveness, like every virtue involves two integrated components consciousness and existence or thought and action or knowledge and its material implementation. Productive ability is a value by the standard of man’s life because, like all values, a course of virtue is required in order to gain and keep it. It is a road of man’s unlimited achievement and calls upon the highest attributes of his character, his creative ability, his ambitions, his refusal to bear uncontested disasters, his dedication to the goal of reshaping the earth in the image of his values. Productive Work is presented in Ayn Rand’s novels. Reason is the source, the precondition of individual’s productive work and pride is the result. The virtue of productiveness is the recognition of the fact that productive work is the road of man’s unlimited achievement and calls upon the highest attributes of his character, his creative ability, his dedication to the goal of reshaping the earth in the image of his values.

Key Words- Productivity, Objectivism

3.6.19 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN SELECT WORKS OF INDIAN DALIT FICTION

Y. KISHORE

ABSTRACT

At the very out set its not the skilled pen that demanded Dalit writing but it's the pain of a suffering heart. As Toni Morrison rightly said it's not the curse to be alienated and oppressed but the force of some 'so called' on innocent people. Whether or not accepted but the cause for the writing of Dalit literature is found in the system of Hindu religion. The four-Varna system which gave birth to untouchability is a terrifying force which divided Indian society into thousands of castes which is irrational and grinds humanity remorselessly under its wheels. This system gave a fourth place of Shudra to adivasis, untouchables, other backward classes and women. The Shudras and those far worse than the Shudras were made to live a life of wretched, beggar like homeless and considered them as ignorant, filthy, polluted, inferior sinner and lowliest of the low. Their lot was worse than that of slaves and that slavery had no parallel. Their freedom of mind was destroyed and they were made to live under the state of mental slavery. This casteism and religious fanaticism have had a very pernicious effect on their minds. Caste- system, untouchability and suppression of women remained the law, culture, religious practice and mentality of Indian religion. No man is basically a dalit or untouchable but this very system deteriorated the life of the downtrodden and made them lead a life of drudgery. The magnitude of deplorable plight of the untouchables was appalling. In short, it is the most artificial social order the world has ever known. 

3.6.20 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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SOCIO- POLITICAL PERSPECTIVES IN ARTHUR MILLER’S DEATH OF A SALESMAN

DR. M. P. GANESAN

ABSTRACT

The story of the twentieth century American drama is the matter of its rise and development from the deep rooted conventions in which the commercial theatre of the late nineteenth century has fallen into and has produced the places with little sense of originality. The commercial instinct dominated the stage and the dramatists yielded to the escapist taste of the exhausted theatre goers who have consumed the effeminate fare of romances and sentimentality. Towards the end of      the nineteenth century changes appeared to bring in new awareness among the writers. The new century saw new minds of change blowing across the stage with the emergence of playwrights like Tennessee Williams, Imamu Baraka, Eugene O’ Neil, Arthur Miller etc. The senseless melodramatic yarn is rejected and the broadway theatre came out endlessly and it attempted to create a powerful substitute for it in the form of modern experimentation Television and Cinema appears during this period. The plays of the above mentioned playwrights are adapted to films and television and they contributed in creating awareness on the human problems.

3.6.21 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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HUMANIST ATTITUDE IN JAYA IN THAT LONG SILENCE

N. NEENA BOPAIAH

ABSTRACT

Humanism essentially is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence over established doctrine or faith. Humanism refers to a perspective that affirms some notion of human freedom and progress. Humanist movements are typically aligned with secularism, "Humanism" typically refers to a non-theistic life stance centered on human agency, and looking to science instead of religious dogma in order to understand the world. Many Humanists, such as Kurt Vonnegut, Jr., openly and clearly declare that Humanism is their "ultimate concern" or "principle motivational philosophy". People whose religion is Humanism may or may not believe in supreme beings, they believe that every human person who does something for somebody else, or engages in self-preservation is a humanist. This paper deals with the protagonist’s humanistic approach its origins and influences that uplifts her individual identity.

Key words: Humanism, existential, self-preservation, accommodative, stereotype, subordinated

3.6.22 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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GANDHIAN THOUGHT IN CHAMAN NAHAL’S THE GANDHI QUARTET

DR. PARESH K. SHAH

ABSTRACT

Indian writers in English have made important contribution in the field of English novel. In the early 20th century Gandhian thought made a deep impact in a variety of ways on the creative writers of India. Of all the Indian writers who have used Gandhi for their creative purposes, Chaman Nahal is the most significant. His The Gandhi Quartet is a landmark in the annals of Indian English fiction which consists of the snovels like The Crown and the Loincloth, The Salt of Life, The Triumph of the Tricolour and Azadi. The Gandhi Quartet successfully reconstructs the three stages of India’s struggle for freedom- the non-cooperation movement, the civil disobedience movement and the Quit India movement of 1942. It also gives a moving account of the division of India into India and Pakistan, and the disaster that follows it. In the end, Nahal seems to suggest that a return to Gandhi is the only solution to the problems people face today. Viewed in this context, The Gandhi Quartet of Chaman Nahal acquires a greater significance, as it reminds us in unflinching terms, of the need to hold fast to the Gandhian ideals in a world torn apart by narrow sectarian and communal considerations.

3.6.23 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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JOHN ROGERS SEARLE AND HIS CONTRIBUTION TO SPEECH ACT THEORY

RANSHING PRATAP RAMDAS

ABSTRACT

Pragmatics is the branch of linguistics which studies the meaning communicated through language. Pragmatics studies the process by which native users of a language use native language. Pragmatics studies the meaning in the context sentence is made. Pragmatics is the newer area of language study in linguists. The important development in the pragmatics is the origin of speech act theory.  J. L. Austin is the originator of the Speech act theory.  According to J. L. Austin all utterances are some type of speech act. People not only produce utterances to convey their feelings but also perform actions in between their speech. Even a simple utterance such as ‘Violets are blue’ might be regarded as a special type of act namely the act of making a statement. This overall approach to language study is known as ‘speech act theory’. 

3.6.24 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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CONJUGAL AFFLICTIONS IN CHITRA DIVAKARUNI’S ARRANGED MARRIAGE

NAEEM UL HAQ

ABSTRACT

Arranged Marriage is an anthology of short stories published in 1995 by Chitra Banerjee Divakarun, and it contains ten stories. Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni is an immigrant writer whose stories deal with the life of Indian immigrants in America, especially women immigrants in America. As orthodox Indian women, they are unable to adapt themselves to the American culture, which they think has no value. Free society, sexual freedom, cohabitation, neglect of parents and elders are unheard of in India. This paper is based on one of the short stories titled “Clothes” in the anthology, Arranged Marriage. This paper aims at show when an Indian immigrant woman faces a big dilemma that is to adapt to the new culture and life and remain attached to her own traditional roots. When she faces encounter in America, she is shaken mentally and cultural conflict crops up in her resulting in a quandary in which she remains indecisive. Some women refuse to adapt and they suffer, and return to India or accept their destiny.

3.6.25 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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MAJOR CHALLENGES FACED BY UNDER GRADUATES IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING (ELT)

S. ARCHANA & DR. K. USHA RANI

ABSTRACT

In today’s comprehensive world, English has its unique significance. At present, it is one of the major languages used for communication in the world.  Perhaps, the most spoken language around the world is English.  English has been playing a key function in numerous fields which includes medication, manufacturing and instructions. English is used as the medium of instructions for many reasons such as finding an employment, trade and commerce, accessing methodical sources in the student’s most important field and it also prevents isolation from the world.  English is considered to be a well-liked language to learn, but it is not that simple language to acquire.  In acquiring English Language students may face many challenges such as Mother Tongue Influence (MTI), Pronunciation, Accent, Grammar, Vocabulary, Lack of Interaction, Inattentive, unpreparedness.

Keywords: Comprehensive, Medication, Employment Mother Tongue Influence (MTI),   Pronunciation, Lack of Interaction, Unpreparedness   

3.6.26 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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CUL DE SAC: A STUDY OF THE QUEST FOR COMPLETENESS IN GIRISH KARNAD’S PLAY- HAYAVADANA

SUSHITHA ANOOP

ABSTRACT

Human beings have to live within the framework of incompleteness. From human being to semi human figures, none is complete. Everyone is in search of perfection in one way or other. They cannot gain perfection till their death. Even though they are tired of pursuit, they never abandon their quest for happiness. The play Hayavadana depicts the complexity of modern man, the shattering of values and the family system. The changing values and breaking of the traditional homes bring about the inner turmoil of the modern discontented mind. The human being is a creature of circumstances. He is not always responsible for what happens in his life. Fate makes him a real puppet in this world. But he is not aware of his meaningless existence.

Key words: disintegration, alienation, frustration, imperfection, fragmentation

3.6.27 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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IMPRESSION OF INDIAN WOMAN AS TRADITIONAL HINDU WIFE IN R. K. NARAYAN’S THE DARK ROOM

NAVJOT GILL & DR. RAM SINGH RAJAWAT

ABSTRACT

The paper has portrayed the part, position and obligation of a customary Hindu spouse in the character of Savitri in R.K. Narayan’s The Dark Room. How a devoted spouse endures noiselessly in the conventional Hindu culture and patriarchal standards of the Indian culture. Other than assuming the customary wifely part, Savitri is additionally a friendly and thoughtful mother who dependably thinks for the welfare and prosperity of her youngsters.

Keywords: conventional Hindu spouse, Savitri, white collar class Indian, custom, society 

3.6.28 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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ROMANTIC AGE :– AN INTRODUCTION

DR. MANOJ KUMAR CHATURVEDI

ABSTRACT

The Romantic period in English Literature has a very wide sense in itself. As it has taken its birth from French revolution which took place in 1789. But the exact date of the beginning of Romantic period with the publication of “Lyrical Ballad” in 1789 by words worth with the collaboration of Coleridge. There were many changes seen in the poetry of Romantic period. The poets of like Wordsworth, Coleridge, Shelley, Keats and Byron challenged the theory of poetry propounded by the poets of the eighteenth century. Wordsworth made a cry to his fellow poets “Return to Nature”. The Romantic period is special and unique in the Horizon of English literature. Actually romanticism became a controversial word with three phenomena associated with a change occurring in utopian sensibility towards the end of the 18th Century and extending into the present. Basically it started in Germany and England during the 1790’s as a new mode of imagination and vision and spread with considerable modification throughout Europe between 1800 and 1830.

Keywords: Meaning of The word ‘Romance’, beginning of The Romantic Period, Characteristics, major poets of the period, type of poetry, etc.

3.6.29 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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A PSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MAJOR SHAKESPEAREAN TRAGEDIES

DR. SANDEEP KUMAR SHARMA

ABSTRACT

Shakespeare was gifted with remarkable powers of psychological intuition, and one of his greatest achievements was the creation of highly individualized characters who seem to have a life of their own and to invite the same kind of analysis that we give real human beings. Shakespeare delved deep into the human psyche in his tragedies which is as convincing and persuasive today as it was four hundred years ago. He is rightly called the  myriad-minded Shakespeare which  means many things to many people. As such Shakespeare remains the best loved, most performed, most translated, transformed and experimented upon playwright in India today. The paper is an honest effort to analyse the major tragic heroes of Shakespeare like  Hamlet, Iago, Lear and Macbeth and indicate the course of their psychological crisis.

Key Words:     Tragic Flaw, Inner Conflict, Psychological Observation, Psyche.

3.6.30 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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SANT KABIR: A PROMOTER OF UNIVERSAL RELIGION OR RELIGION OF MAN

DR. PARESH K. SHAH

ABSTRACT

Sant Kabir Das is considered as the most influential and most remarkable poet of the Bhakti and Sufi movement in Northern India. He is the first Indian saint who has coordinated the Hinduism and Islam by giving a universal path which could be followed by both Hindus and Muslims. He always objected the ritualistic and ascetic methods as a means of salvation. He openly criticized all sects and gave a new direction to the Indian philosophy, with his straight forward approach on various aspects of human existence. It is important to point out that Kabir was not preaching against any religion but against the hypocrisy being committed by people in the name of religion. It is for this reason that Kabir is held in high esteem all over the world. 

3.6.31 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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JOURNEY FROM VICTIMIZATION TO THE VENERABLE ICONS: A STUDY OF K. R. S. IYENGAR’S HEROINES IN SITAYANA AND SATISAPTAKAM

DR. LALITA JOSHI

ABSTRACT

K. R. Srinivasa Iyengar’s sincere effort in presenting women with all their virtues, as an ideal, not only for women, but also for the whole human race, in his major works Sitayana: Epic of the Earth Born and Saga of Seven Mothers: Satisaptakam, is really a creative venture. These two works present women with all their inborn virtues of grace, compassion, peace, purity, fidelity, endurance and firm belief in the Indian traditional family values.With these qualities they raised themselves on the pedestal of venerable position. But their journey from the ordinary women to the venerable icon is not an easy and simple one. They went through several kinds of ordeals and victimization in the male dominated society. The present paper explores their journey from victimization to the spiritually awakened icons of worship.

Key Words: Saga, Virtue,Victimization,Family Values ,Spiritual Awakening.

3.6.32 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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PICTURES, OBJECTS AND CARDS AS LEARNING RESOURCES IN ESL / EFL CLASSROOM

DR. KOTTACHERUVU NAGENDRA

ABSTRACT

The present research article aims at teaching language skills through popular pictures, objects from real life examples and use of cards to the learners. As Jeremy Harmer rightly says in his book, ‘The Practice of English Language Teaching’; By far the most useful resources in the classroom are the learners themselves. Though their thoughts and experiences they bring the outside world into the classroom, and this a powerful resource for the most of the ESL / EFL teachers to draw on. We can get them to write or talk about things they like or things they have personally experienced. We can ask them what they would do in certain situations or get them to act out scenes from their lives. In multilingual classes we can get them to share information about their different countries (p-176).

Key Words: Language Skills, EFL, ESL, Pictures, Objects, Cards