4.1 ENGLISH

Area of Article : ALL

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PUNE RESEARCH - An International Journal in English (ISSN 2454-3454) JIF 3.02

Editor-in-Chief

ABSTRACT

PUNE RESEARCH  

AN INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL IN ENGLISH

( ISSN 2454  -  3454  ONLINE ) (JIF 3.02)

 VOLUME 4 , ISSUE - 1  ( JAN-FEB  2018 )

4.1.1 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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STAGE TECHNIQUES AND THEATRE EFFECTS AS ADOPTED IN WESTERN THEATREAND MODERN MALAYALAM THEATRE: A BRIEF ANALYSIS

DR. S. CHELLIAH

ABSTRACT

This paper attempts to examine the stage techniques and theatre effects as adopted both in Western Theatre and modern Malayalam Theatre tracing the growth of the modern theatre of the West beginning with the Norveigian playwright Henrik Ibsen and the birth of movements like absurdism, symbolism, expressionism, impression and existentialism and theatre formations like Theatre of Complicate, theatre debre, Theatre of Cruelty, Theatre of Panic, Theatre of Silence, Theatre of Absurd and also Epic Theatre with a mention of the plays of Shakespeare and Kalidasa. It neatly shows how the stage techniques mark both the Western modern Malayalam plays and these characteristic features distinguish them both from the conventional plays.

Key Words: western, modern, symbolism, absurdism, stage techniques, realm of drama, conventional plays, lighting, narrator, director and chorus.

4.1.2 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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ORAL PRESENTATIONS: A POWERFUL TOOL TO DEVELOP COMMUNICATION SKILLS

DR. KOTTACHERUVU NAGENDRA

ABSTRACT

The aim of this research article is to develop communication skills among the learners of English language. Generally, it is observed that most of the students are not confident about their communication skills though they are good at written communication. Especially, students who come from rural areas and those have studied in regional mediums face such problems. It usually happens, due to lack of exposure in the target language, cultural and economical background. Environment in which they grow up also plays a crucial role to develop communication skills because teachers, co-students and parents seldom speak or motivate them to speak in English.

Key Words: Verbal Communication, Pronunciation, Body Language, Visual aids, Handouts

4.1.3 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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THE ARCHITECTURE BEHIND THE EXTENSIVE UTILIZATION OF INDIRECT SPEECH ACTS IN KHUSHWANT SINGH’S ‘TRAIN TO PAKISTAN’

MILI BHATTACHARYYA SARMA

ABSTRACT

Novelists make conscious attempts to use Indirect speech acts to enhance the power of acute observation and understanding among readers. In fictions, the business between the writer and the reader goes on at an emotional level. To fulfil his intention the author makes use of indirect speech acts in the form of Rhetorical questions, Proverbs, and Euphemistic expressions etc. These indirect speech acts can extract the authorial intention from the linguistic expressions that occur in different socio-cultural context of the novel. The present article explores how the analysis of indirect speech acts can enlighten the readers to simplify the complex web of meanings in the novel ‘Train to Pakistan’ by Khushwant Singh. This can be the finest way to reach the ultimate meaning and understanding of the fictions.

Key Words: indirect speech act, rhetorical questions, euphemistic expressions, proverbs, context. etc.

4.1.4 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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USE OF AUTHENTIC TEXTBOOKS TO DEVELOP COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE AND CULTURAL EMPOWERMENT IN THE LANGUAGE CLASSROOM FOR THE HIGHER SECONDARY CLASSES

ANIL SWAMI

ABSTRACT

As it is well-known, one of the purposes of language teaching is to help the learner gain proficiency in the language, i.e., proficiency in the four skills—listening, speaking, reading and writing. While most textbooks aim to achieve this goal, they fail, very often, to achieve the purpose of culturally empowering the learner.  One of the things that plays an important part in enhancing communication is the role of textbooks and other additional materials that are used in English classes. The importance of textbooks stands in the fact that their authenticity should meet the needs of our students. Present research paper focuses on how to use textbook and authentic materials to develop students’ communicative competence and culturally empower the learners.  Its aim is to address the above issues with special reference for the Higher Secondary Classes.

Keywords: English as a Foreign Language (EFL), English as a Second Language (ESL), Course books or Textbooks, Authentic texts, Communicative Competence.

4.1.5 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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USE OF CONTENT AND LANGUAGE INTEGRATED LEARNING (CLIL) AND BILINGUAL EDUCATION FOR LANGUAGE CLASSROOM

TAPASHI MAZUMDAR

ABSTRACT

Present Paper will explore how one alternative (amongst several) to current mainstream practice – Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) - has a role to play in shaping future flexible and multifaceted foreign language experiences in Engineering Polytechnic(Diploma) classes.  CLIL is a lifelong concept that embraces all sectors of education from primary to adults. Learner Autonomy a major aim of CLIL, teaching is to help students to work independently to solve problems and to develop their own knowledge and skills. CLIL and Bilingual or Emergent methods help learners to learn foreign language with the help of first language. It also helps to develop students’ communicative competence and cultural empowerment in real world.

Key Words: Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL), Bilingual Education methods, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), English as a Second Language (ESL)

4.1.6 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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THE VOICE OF THE MARGINALIZED – A STUDY OF BAMA’S ‘KARUKKU’

DR. D. RAJANI DEIVASAHAYAM

ABSTRACT

Literature is the mirror of life. It is deeply influenced by the social and economic issues in society. It moulds itself variously to serve the needs of the society and also acts as a vehicle to bring about an evolutionary change in the society. Dalit literature is one such genre which voiced the humiliations, exploitations, marginalization, and rebellion of the downtrodden sections of the Indian society. It is the realistic reflection of the oppressed classes. Dalit literature evolved out of suffering. Discrimination on the basis of caste since ages made certain sections in the Indian society vulnerable to oppression and suffering. They have been struggling for existence in the caste driven society. The prolonged suffering of the downtrodden has given voice to some of the members of this segregated section of the society.  The harsh realities of life, their horrid experiences made them raise their voice against their suppression, revolt against the oppressive forces and find a respectable place for themselves. Taking inspiration from the male writers in projecting the life of the downtrodden and the tremendous response they received from the thinkers for their raised voices, women writers also have come up into the open articulating their experiences, sufferings, humiliations and exploitation in all walks of their lives. This paper focuses on Bama’s first novel, Karukku, a semi-autobiographical sketch in which she presents the humiliation of women in the Paraiyar community, the lowest of the lowest section in the society, on the basis of caste, religion and gender.  

4.1.7 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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THE DISPLACEMENT ISSUES IN THE NOVEL “SHAME” AND “MIDNIGHT’S CHILDREN” BY SALMAN RUSHDIE

J. ASHA & DR. P. SANTHI

ABSTRACT

Indian Writing in English refers to writers who write their fiction or any writing in Indian English. Writers like Mulk Raj Anand, Bhabani Bhattacharya, Nirad Chaudhuri, Anita Desai, Ruth Prawer Jhabvala, Manohar Malgonkar, Kamala Markandaya, R.K. Narayan, Raja Rao and Nissim Ezekiel have gained national and international reputation. Salman Rushdie established himself as one of the most powerful of modern novelists with his great six novels. Salman Rushdie’s writings express the deep anguish of fragmented vision seen through his writing. He examines the life of the migrant and explores the universal mystery of being born and the puzzle regarding one’s identity. Even Rushdie’s life has quest for identity. He focuses on the theme of ‘double identity’, ‘fragmented vision of life’, ‘divided selves’ and ‘shadow figures’. He is a migrant who has gained a unique perspective from rather unique life.

4.1.8 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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SELF REALIZATION AND THE QUEST FOR LIBERATION IN THE PLAYS OF VIJAY TENDULKAR WITH REFERENCE TO KAMALA AND SILENCE! THE COURT IS IN SESSION

SEEMA. M. & DR. P. SANTHI

ABSTRACT

Vijay Tendulkar plays depicts the exploitation of women by their male counterparts. Tendulkar presents modern man in all his complexities. He has focused on male chauvinism ,subtle, inverted and preservative relationship between men and women.   The play Kamala portrays the life of two women, an ignorant woman sold in the flesh trade industry and the journalist’s wife who seems to be an educated woman, being exploited by the same man for his personal benefit. Kamala’s entry reveals to Sarita the selfish hypocrisy of her husband and the insignificance of her own existence. Kamala remains very subtle in her attitude of subjugating women. Though Sarita attempts to assert her identity as a woman, free from slavish subjugation of her husband, but finally she has no choice but to fall back on her traditional role-play in wedlock. Silence! The Court is in Session is a master piece of Vijay Tendulkar where he portrayed the life of a spinster school mistress Ms.Leela Benare. Though she was loyal in her work, it wasn’t recognized. Infact  her colleagues and troupe mates mixed her personal life with her profession and deprived her of her job which was  her only means of survival. The play grapples with several problems faced by women and the forceful male supremacy who decides the fate of woman.

Key words:    Subjugation, Male Supremacy, Selfish Hypocrisy, Infanticide

4.1.9 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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FEMINIST LITERATURE INFLUENCES TO GENDER EQUALITY

DR. SANGOJU RAJESWARI & M. A. K. SUKUMAR

ABSTRACT

Gender behavior is significantly influenced by process of socialization and social forces than by natural or innate differences. Gender issues are the universal problem not only in India. Basically it is the problem of human resource and also economical. The women energies, emotions and work rate have been wasted from the ages. The fifty percent of human resources were wasted in the developing country like India. It is very social violence situation in so many other countries. Women trafficking, prostitution, exploitation, domestic violence and suppression of the energies of women throughout the world. According to Human development Index(HDI) gender development index is one of the factors which depicts country development status. The empowerment of women through literacy, working status can support to the Indian economy. Through the literature feminists are specifying the gender issues and create awareness about the problems of gender issues and the solutions. The women writers after independence are depicting the gender issues successfully through their characters. Anitha Desai, Nayanatara Sehgal, Shashi Deshpande and Shobha we have dealt with such issues. 

4.1.10 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN AND POLITICS OF IDENTITY CRISIS IN NADIA HASHIMI’S PEARL THAT BROKE ITS SHELL

ROSHNI C.

ABSTRACT

We are accustomed to a world where we are favoured with an upbringing and a domain that provides us endless opportunities and freedom. So we have never thought about breaking our comfort shell to see the real world outside. Afghan American author NadiaHashimi’s debut novel Pearl that Broke its Shell is a heartbreaking account of the silenced lives of women in the Afghan patriarchal society. Her writing is reminiscent of Khalid Hosseini. Through this article I have tried to explore the issue of identity, throwing light on the Afghan customs and traditions likebacha posh and the laws which favour men and how the men totally neglect the multitudinous roles played by women and how Rahima and Shekiba could overcome these perils and find a meaning to their existence in this chaotic world.

Keywords- Victimization, Identity Crisis, Spiritual Strength

4.1.11 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN GIRISH KARNAD’S NAGAMANDALA

DR. SHAILAJA B. WADIKAR

ABSTRACT

The play Nagamandala  subtitled  A Play with a Cobra is based upon a folk belief and a myth. Outwardly, the play appears simple but in it, Karnad has successfully coordinated the elements of myth, magic, folk belief, and romance. The play criticizes gender-biased values and morals of this patriarchal society where women have been oppressed for centuries together. On the day of trial, Rani has been asked to prove her chastity by giving an ordeal while Appanna, her husband, goes unquestioned, even unnoticed. Appanna enjoys extra-marital relationship quite openly with the concubine and tries to punish Rani severely for the same when she is even unconscious and ignorant of the sin of adultery. Thus, the play exposes the double standards of this so called cultured society that strongly demands the faithfulness of a woman to her husband but not the faithfulness of a man to his wife. In Indian society, fidelity is expected only from a woman and man is left scot-free to commit more crimes. That is why the village elders ask Rani alone to prove her fidelity. 

4.1.12 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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QUEST FOR ETHNIC IDENTITY IN THE SHORT STORIES OF AO TEMSULA’S, ‘THE JUNGLE MAJOR’ AND ‘THE LAST SONG’

DR. BABURAM SWAMI

ABSTRACT

The culture of every state/ nation is reflected in its native society and to understand this society, the study of native literature becomes mandatory. Mother India has a rich and varied culture heritage. It has become a home to several castes, creed, communities and ethnic people each having its own peculiar literary traditions. Human identity in a world of tangled relationship is causing confusion of identity which reveals the ambiguous nature of human personality. Fundamentally, incomplete and imperfect, the human beings search and strive for attaining the unattainable ideals of completeness and perfection. The best solution for the problem of identity crisis then is reconciliation with one’s own self and environment. The aim of literature is not only in the unfolding of human beings’ life and the ambience but also in creating awareness about certain short comings and inconsistencies. A sentry of society is looking towards change and an integral link between man and society. Literature records the longing and regrets of all sections of society. Thus, with the help of this paper I would like to present AO Temsula’s desire to explore the unexplored one who is neither celebrating nor negating Indian nationalism in the stories. In ‘The Jungle Major’, she is striving for sovereignty of land to the Nagas identity. It is evident that Temsula engages and questions the notion of nationalism in the context of Nagaland and their identity not of India and related identity.

Keywords: identity, nationalism, ethnic, idealist, terrorist.

4.1.13 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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CHARACTERIZATION IN KHUSHWANT SINGH’S I SHALL NOT HEAR THE NIGHTINGALE

DR. SOMAPALYAM OMPRAKASH

ABSTRACT

Khushwant Singh is a famous Indo-Anglian writer who occupies an important position in the galaxy of Indian authors in English. Singh regarded his second fictional work, I Shall Not Hear the Nightingale as his best novel. It deals with the pre Independent India in 1940s in the background of the Quit India movement. Though set in 1940s it is not a political novel. The novel concentrates and revolves around a Sikh family of Buta Singh, his wife Sabrai, his son Sher Singh, daughter in law Champak and daughter Beena. The novel unfolds in the cheerful and sorrowful incidents in the lives of these characters. This novel deals with the concept of love of a mother towards her family, especially her son.  The novel brought fame and also notoriety to Singh as it concentrates on the theme of sensuality through the promiscuous love affairs between Champak and Madan on the one hand Shunnoo and Peersahib on the other.

 

4.1.14 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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LEAH, RACHEAL AND JACOB AS VICTIMS OF DECEPTION: A STUDY

DR. P. SALEEMA & JESIA PERSIS PREETHI

ABSTRACT

In the book of Genesis, Leah and Racheal are two siblingsborn to Laban.He promises his younger daughter Rachael in marriage to his nephew Jacob.But Laban resorts to deception on the wedding day when he secretly swaps the bride Rachel, his younger daughter to his elder daughter Leah. This paper explores the way this deceitful step affects three lives. It is symbolic of the fact that evil motives always result in negative ramifications and undesirable outcomes, not just on those immediately involved but on generations to come.

4.1.15 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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UNDERSTANDING COMEDY: HOWARD JACOBSON’S ZOO TIME

DR. T. VASANTHAKUMARI & K. NIRMALA

ABSTRACT

Howard Jacobson is one of the comic novelist and journalist in English Literature. He has written fourteen novels and five non -fictions and he is a winner of the Man Booker Prize for his novel The Finkler Question in 2010. His novel Zoo Time won the Bollinger Everyman Wodehouse prize for his comic writing. It deals with the story of a childless, Jewish middle aged man, born in Manchester and after he lives in London. He is pursuing the profession of novelist. His name is Guy Ableman. This paper aims at deals with the comic elements in Zoo Time. Guy is a protagonist who tries to write a novel. But it makes him failure among the readers. In the society the people are not accepted him as a novelist Jacobson is a highly self-conscious writer. He deals with the plot which is minimal and largely circular.

Keywords: Howard Jacobson, Zoo Time, Comedy, Comic theatre, Jewish.

4.1.16 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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DEPICTION OF “SHE” IN TENDULKAR’S SILENCE! THE COURT IS IN SESSION

G. SAILAJA ; DR. V. B. CHITRA & DR. K. GOPAL REDDY

ABSTRACT

The present paper focuses on Tendulkar’s Leela Benare, the protagonist of Silence! The Court is in Session who becomes a victim of ruthless society’s set standards of culture and longs for true love breaking the cultural norms by having a relation with a married man without marriage.  The paper also tries to analyze how she is isolated and made the victim to a cruel game cunningly planned by her co-actors.

4.1.17 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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MEGAN TERRY : THE TRANSFORMATIONAL THEATRE

DR A. SANDHYA REDDY

ABSTRACT

Actors, characters and playwright took a back seat and the audience clearly focused on on the action and the interpretation of that action. It is through this technique that Terry portrays various issues. The stress on ‘craft’ or technique is quite pronounced and hence the plays become more and more a series of fresh ‘formalities’ where transformation becomes central and institutionalized. As an artist, she is deeply concerned with her contemporary American ethos. Terry’s interest always lay in making the audience participate more through feeling than through thought of what is happening on stage. She developed as an innovative writer of the avante garde and her plays attracted various groups, university drama departments as well as the media. The continual exchange of one reality for another which is proposed by transformation, reflects the modern temper. The paper discusses the transformational theatre and its deep impact on Megan Terry’s craft as a playwright.

Key words : Transformational theatre, avante garde, realism, naturalism

4.1.18 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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IVORY TOWERS AND SACRED FOUNTS: ARTISTIC ASPIRATION AND LIFE REALITIES IN THE SELECT WORKS OF JAMES JOYCE AND TENNESSEE WILLIAMS

ABHAYSINH V. DESHMUKH

ABSTRACT

The select works belong to Kunstlerroman genre and deal with an artist’s journey from adolescence to maturity both in his life and art. This gradual ascendance comes, many a times, with the difficulty of accepting reality, the need to develop individual consciousness, the pitfalls of religious extremism and the infinite desire to become a creator. Both Joyce and Williams built the protagonist based on their own character. Stephen Dedalus is Joyce’s alter ego, whereas Tom Wingfield outlines Williams’ artistic aspirations and his own struggle in its pursuit. Both Stephen and Tom aspire to become a literary artist. For fulfilling their artistic aspirations they show willingness to cross any boundary and make any sacrifices.

Key Expressions: Artist, Aspiration, Life, Family, Literature.

4.1.19 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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CONCEPT OF HOUSE IN V. S. NAIPAUL'S A HOUSE FOR MR. BISWAS

M. B. BAVISKAR

ABSTRACT

A House for Mr. Biswas (1961) is the significant novel of V. S. Naipaul which achieved world­wide fame. Naipaul presents a consistent image of social reality in the Non-Western world where dispossessed people search their identity. It is the novel about a Trinidadian Hindu who greatly desires to have his own house. The protagonist Mr. Biswas struggles for accommodation, wholeness, order and roots. The novel has elements of high comedy and tragic pathos has become closely associated with Naipaul's own personal search for meaning and community despite alienating effects of colonialism. The novel can be read on different levels. Even without any special emphasis on its historical context, it still holds true as a novel about frustration and tragic vulnerability that lies at the core of all human existence. The migrant thinks to have his own house in an alien land. Home is not simply where one lives. It is one's identity- national, cultural, spiritual. Home is where one belongs. It is the soil that has nurtured one's body and spirit. Home is a security. Home is the place with which we get spiritual pleasure.

Keywords: Expatriation, Exile, Rootlessness and Homelessness.

4.1.20 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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FRAGMENTED POSTCOLONIAL IDENTITY IN THE WRAP OF STEREOTYPES IN ADICHIE’S ‘THE THING AROUND YOUR NECK’

SUCHETA & DR. NEHA ARORA

ABSTRACT

The present paper attempts to analyze Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s short story, ‘Things Around your Neck’ from the postcolonial perspective; how Africa/Africans are trapped in the single fold story of being barbaric and savage and how the contemporary writers like Adichie and Sefi Atta are using their writings to dismantle this stereotyped image. The story revolves around Akunna, a Nigerian girl who shares with her people glamorous dreams of being in America but soon her fantasy shatters down like castle of cards. Through Akunna, Adichie shares the predicament of the diaspora community who are stranded on the hyphens in the New World. She uses the technique of story-telling to repair the fragmented identities of Africans whose history is distorted, disfigured and eventually destroyed by the colonial forces. The present discussion tries to deconstruct the Western stereotypes, simultaneously, reconstructing the past heritage from an Afrocentric point of view. Adichie has attempted to provide a ‘black perspective’ to the issues unheeded hitherto or taken for granted.

Key words: New World, Colonial Forces, Afrocentric

4.1.21 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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FEATURES OF SPEECH: POSSIBILITY, FEASIBILITY AND APPROPRIATENESS THROUGH COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE

DR. KIRTI BALA

ABSTRACT

In today’s globalised world it is very important to convey our thoughts and ideas in an apt manner. Importance of speech is known to everyone but as teachers we should focus on making our students communicative competent. This paper discusses the important elements of communicative competence, areas on which this competence needs to be assessed, as well as various components and features of speech. The paper advocates the need for incorporating these aspects in ESL teaching curriculum so that we may work towards the improved communication skills of the learners.

4.1.22 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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MOOCS - EXPLORE 21ST CENTURY SKILLS: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

B. WAHEEDA PARVEEN & DR. K. V. DIVYA

ABSTRACT

India is a developing nation which needs a large number of productive engineers to compete in this globalized world. The establishment of huge number of engineering colleges unable to produce quality engineers and also to provide quality outcome based education for which ICT (Information and Communication Technology) is essential. The technology has revolutionized the present education system which is the primary factor of a nation to define its growth and development. The present education system has outdated syllabi which do not match to the needs of the learners in order to meet the industry. In a developing country like India, most of the students are from rural-areas and they cannot afford quality education. Undoubtedly, Massive Open Online Course (MOOCs) has emerged as a recent path-breaking educational paradigm and can definitely be a game-changer. As the name implies, it is massive, open and online. It has started in 2008 and reached every corner of the globe which had helped to learn new things at its doorstep. The researcher aims to explain its history, development and highlight the importance of MOOCs, The article focuses on strategies of MOOCs which is to be implemented in rural areas. It also focuses on challenges and issues faced in the teaching-learning process for outcome based education.

Keywords: ICT, MOOCs, Game-Changer, Globalization

4.1.23 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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DR. BABASAHEB AMBEDKAR’S NARRATIVE STYLE IN THE BUDDHA AND HIS DHAMMA : A BRIEF SURVEY

DR. UMESH B. BANSOD

ABSTRACT

Undoubtedly Dr. Ambedkar has mesmerized the world with his illuminary intellect. The probe into his writing investigating his style and technique surprises us the more .The Buddha  and His Dhamma  is the magnum opus of Dr. Ambedkar . The book tempts scholars of  literature to have a close look at his style , technique and language . The moment we study  literary devices employed by him ,it becomes crystal clear that he is the master of style, language and style in his own ways. Here in this novel we experience a different Ambedkar than earlier. His language becomes juicy  and lucid unmatched to his nature . Readers never find him such romantic in his earlier  any of the writings as in  The Buddha  and His Dhamma. The book is the product of his last phase of life .He is at the culmination of knowledge ,wisdom ,experiences ,style, logic and thought. These  all facts are well imbibed in this novel an  make it  real treasure of literature .

Keywords : style ,logic , facts 

4.1.24 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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MYTH AND ALLEGORY: SELECT ONE-ACT PLAYS OF THORNTON WILDER

M. SATHYARAJ & B. KATHIRESAN

ABSTRACT

The present study proposes to explore myth and allegory in the select plays of Thornton Wilder. In Wilder’s plays myth and allegory act as agents that convey the theme of the plays. Inspired by the Bible, Wilder finds allegory as an effective medium to convey the Christian myth. This article is divided into different parts. The first is the introductory. It briefly talks briefly about American Literature. The first section is concluded with the establishment of the scope of analysis. The next segment is a close analysis of allegory in the plays of Thornton Wilder. The third part examines mythical relevance to the title. The consequent part focuses on the complementary nature of myth and allegory. It analyses how they help one to interpret the plays. The last part is a final part which concludes the major arguments of the paper.

Key words: Myth, Allegory, Style.

4.1.25 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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GENDER, COMMUNALISM AND REALITY: MAHESH DATTANI

P. XAVIER & B. KATHIRESAN

ABSTRACT

This article is an attempt to discuss Gender Articulations, Communal Differences and Social Realism in the plays of Mahesh Dattani.  Mahesh Dattani is the most capable and strong sensational voice in the present Indian English emotional world. The paper gives a background to the Indian drama and offers a brief outline of Dattani’s biography. The major concepts are discussed briefly.  Gender articulation is given a major importance of the paper. Communal Differences and its social impact are examined in detail. Social realism is credited in all its aspects. Finally, an attempt is made to assess whether the objective of paper is met. Moreover further research problems to be discussed in the plays of Mahesh Dattani are also suggested.

Key words: Social Realism, Gender Articulation, Myth, Culture and Partition

4.1.26 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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EXPECTATIONS (AMERICAN DREAM) AND EXPLORATIONS: A READING OF CHITRA BANERJEE DIVAKARUNI’S “SILVER PAVEMENTS, GOLDEN ROOFS”

DR. SANGITA VIJAY KONGRE

ABSTRACT

Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni- a renowned South Asian Diaspora writer, representing the influential and distinct voice of Indian immigrant women abroad, especially in America. Divakaruni’s book of eleven short-stories entitled Arranged Marriage unfolds the saga of willing and unwilling immigrant women’s lives in America. The writer authentically pens down the women from all walks of life. They are in/dependent wives or girls seeking their careers in America. Divakaruni’s intention to do away with the much discussed, old, conventional, passive and unwilling image of Indian immigrant woman who always remain silent against her self-will, desire to freedom and individuality. The research paper proves through the short story that the popular ‘American Dream’ is for all those who wish and strive to chase it constantly. The tale anecdotes an ambitious girl- Jayanti Ganguli, travelling from India (Diasporal Dream) to America (American Dream). She envisions the ‘American Dream of  “Silver Pavements, Golden Roofs”  willing to wipe away the conventional image of passive, failed and unwilling immigrant to America to achieve her expectations of better and shackle free life. Jayanti represents the writer’s assumption of ‘equal opportunities for all- American Dream’.

Key-words: Diaspora, American Dream, immigrant, Culture and individuality etc.

4.1.27 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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SOCIAL REALISM: REPRESENTATION OF TRIBAL CULTURE AND TREATMENT OF WOMEN IN JAMIL AHMAD’S THE WANDERING FALCON

DIGAMBAR S. KULKARNI

ABSTRACT

The present research article cultivates the idea of social realism in literature by contemplating over Jamil Ahmad’s projection of tribal culture and the images of women in The Wandering Falcon. Jamil Ahmad was posted as a civil servant at the frontier that was known as Federated Tribal Area (FTA). As a part of his duty, he encountered with various issues and problems of the tribal communities such as Siahpads, Wazirs, Mahsuds, Kharots and other Baluchi tribes. He had observed these communities minutely and recorded their lives, culture and troubles in the form of short stories which later on published as a novel in 2008.The novel The Wandering Falcon aptly fits into social realism as it depicts the social, political, economical and gender issues arose during the seventies and that caused unrest and trouble among the tribes at the borderline of Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran. The people belonging to the various tribal communities were not ready accept the laws and regulations made and imposed by the foreign governments as they felt that these laws would destroy their lives. They didn’t want the foreign governmental intrusion in their culture and ways of living such as free movement and the laws of their own tribes. It is on this background Jamil Ahmad, the author of this novel has depicted the struggle of these tribes against the government. The novel has also depicted the beliefs, the ideas of honour, rivalry, the concept of manhood, images of women and treatment to the women, the ways of earning and livelihood of these communities in a very realistic manner.

Key Words: Social Realism, tribal culture, treatment of women, etc.

4.1.28 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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FRAGMENTATION AND MECHANICAL EXISTENCE OF MODERN MAN IN THE POETRY OF NISSIM EZEKIEL

DR. ANSHU PANDEY

ABSTRACT

My aim through this article is to propagate that Nissim Ezekiel has made distinctive and unforgettable contribution to Indian English poetry. The poet is worried to see the loneliness, alienation, suffering and the tragedy of modern man. His poems question some of the norms and principles of society. Ezekiel concern is to shed light to the dilemma of modern man within his normal setting and occupations. His poems do not seem to be occupied with too high ambitions; in fact he chooses in his portrayal the theme often turns out to be homeless person and miserable people without a shelter or a job. Indeed, Ezekiel may be described as an everlasting surveyor of the tangle of the mind. Ezekiel creates poems out of the ordinary incidents, circumstances and events that one meets in day to day life. He picks out a normal situation, analysis it and describes it in such a way that it right away assumes a kind of common significance. He has used in his creative work to highlight the problem of real life.

Key words:  Fragmentation, reality, Mechanical Existence and isolation

4.1.29 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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GIRLS EDUCATIONAL HINDRANCES IN RURAL AREAS

DR. PRACHI DIXIT & MOHD MUZAMIL SOHIL

ABSTRACT

Education and girl are two different factors in the rural areas. The value of education attached to boy is much important as compared to girl education. Girls with regards of education are still in the miserable condition in one and other way. Education is meant for the modification of behaviour but unfortunately it has been turned an uncivilised and uncultured factor for girls in some rural areas. In today’s fast and hi tech age there is still such mental patches which are responsible for uncivilised society in this age of ultra transitional. Girl education is considered to delve and ruin the dignity of family. She has been shoot out and kept salient till death and the under controlled environment in the family is considered the sophisticate for her long life. Working inside the family and cut off from the social links have been considered high moral values for a family whose children are under such environment. People thought that educated girls have loose character and cannot bear good treats of life and good behaviour... 

4.1.30 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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LISTEN JANAMEJAYA : A CRITIQUE

DR. AMIT PANDEY

ABSTRACT

My aim through this article is to throw light on Adya Rangacharya’s play Listen Janamejaya which was originally written in Kannada language as Kelu Janamejaya delineatical a mythical story of the King Janamejaya in the present context. The play Listen Janamajaya or Kelu Janamejaya was published in 1966 and translated by Padma Ramchandra Sharma in English. The play actually talks about the essence of life and revolves around the vehement conversation on the "basis principles of progress." It is a symbolical play in which mythological character Janamejaya - protector of the earth is the representative of the human race who listens to the teaching of Vidur - symbolically signifies the repartee existed in the whole play. The other characters are symbolising different aspects of life whereas leader is the representative of the society. Old Man, Young Man, Young Woman and Common Man try to establish their views on "the basic principles of progress" in their vehement vociferous conversations in the play.

Key words: Experience, Zest, Desire, Happiness, Principal Progress, Life, Death.

4.1.31 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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ANTIFEMINIST ELEMENTS IN THE PLUMED SERPENT

AVDHESH YADAV

ABSTRACT

Lawrence wrote The Plumed Serpent during his stay in America and his several trips to Old Mexico. He began working on this novel early in 1923, when he was living on the shores of Lake Chapala and finished it in February 1923.This paper aims to discover antifeminist elements in this novel. This association with Mexico redefined his vision of life. As we know, he always had a remarkable reverence for the aboriginal inhabitants of the continent-the Indians, the Aztecs and the Mayas. What he adored these days was the instinctive life of these primitive civilizations, which he found to be lacking in the life of modern Europe and America. The political quest for power, which emerged forcefully for the first time in Aron’s Rod and which took a religious form in Kangaroo with its call for the ‘god-passion’, now witnesses the quasi resurrection of ‘the great dark god’ in The Plumed Serpent. The plot of the novel revolves round an Irish widow, Kate Leslie, Who comes to Mexico with her two American friends for no reason except that “Over in England, In Ireland, in Europe, she had heard the consummated of her own spirit. It was finished, in a kind of death agony”. (41)

Keywords: Antifeminism, Manhood, Woman and Phallic Pride

4.1.32 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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ANITA NAIR’S LADIES COUPE: EXPLORATION OF WOMEN’S EXISTENCE

M. A. WASNIK

ABSTRACT

Feminism and education play vital role to bring some revolutionary changes in the status of women. The ideas of fraternity, equality and liberty along with the liberal philosophy of individualism made women conscious of the fact that it is the social processes that determine her life. This contributed to an intense dislike among women to these so called tradition and custom .This is an undeniable situation of patriarchy for every woman.  They are always concealed with their identity behind the curtain of customary roles.  They must break the chain and live their life not behind these curtains but with the succor of freedom. They can create their own world. By breaking their silence with strident efforts, women are excelling in unconventional roles. This paper explores the women’s existence in Anita Nair’s novel Ladies Coupe. Existentialism, a 20th century movement has flourished after the Second World War, predominantly by Jean-Paul-Sartre under the fortitude of willing to be. Anita is a noteworthy contemporary novelist in Indian Literature. She artistically describes the journey of her female characters and creates their existence in her novel Ladies Coupe.

Key Words:  Self -discovery, determining, existentialism, choice, freedom, responsibility, woman suppression.  

4.1.33 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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TRANSFORMATION FROM SIDDARTHA TO BUDDHA

DR. RAVI SANKAR K.

ABSTRACT

It discusses the events associated with the transformation of Siddartha in to Buddha. In fact, there is no exclusive Canonical account that discusses the biographical events of the Buddha, chronologically from his birth to nirvana. However there are a number of intermingled sources in the canonical texts, both in Pali and Sanskrit languages describing the different events associated with the life of Buddha. The complete biography of the Buddha found in the later Pali commentaries and chronicles as well as in the Sanskrit works, was woven out of those catered evidences

4.1.34 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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AMITAV GHOSH’S THE CIRCLE OF REASON IN THE ARENA OF MAGIC REALISM

P. PRADEEP

ABSTRACT

The Circle of Reason is a debut novel by Amitav Ghosh which was published in 1986. The Circle of Reason won the Prix Médicis étranger, one of France's top literary awards. Its theme is different from traditional concerns of Indian English Fiction. It challenges a direct and simple appreciation. In fact, it needs a different type of approach to be grasped fully. The book itself is sort of a paradox. It exudes restlessness with extreme control and poise. The new thrust and lift that came to Indian English Fiction during late eighties and early nineties is partly due to this path breaking work. It internationalized our fiction. It brought a refreshing ‘contemporary Society’. It is daring in its experimentation with the form, content and language of the novel. This novel is full of conflicts. There is internal conflict along with other conflicts with the outer world in the central character, Alu, who is a protagonist. There are also conflicts among other groups in the novel.

Key Words: Quest for the Science, Societal impact, exploitation, Conflicts and the Circle

4.1.35 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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OSBORNE’S LOOK BACK IN ANGER : AS A NATURALIST PLAY

DR. MANISH D. BHATT

ABSTRACT

The son of Thomas Godfrey Osborne, a commercial artist and Nellie Beatrice, a bar-maid, John Osborne was born in 1929 in a London suburb. Thomas Godfrey Osborne died when the boy John was hardly twelve and when World War II was gaining still greater momentum. The boy spent the remaining years of the war with his mother in London and was thereafter sent to boarding school in the west of England where he was far from happy. He left school in 1949 and that was the end of his education. 

4.1.36 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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IMPLICATIONS FROM HUMAN MEMORY PROCESS TO ENHANCE L2 VOCABULARY

PEDDIPAGA RAMABABU

ABSTRACT

This paper displayed the criticality and complexity of human memory in the realm of learning with the help of information processing model, which shows the processing of the data from sensory memory to long-term memory, through working memory along with the valuable inputs to be focused at each level.  It amplified the research studies of neuroscience to appeal the learning and teaching communities across the world to realize the criticality of human memory process and it urges to design their own strategies either to learn or teach L2 vocabulary in ESLL contexts after understanding its complexity.

Key Words: Brain, memory, neuroplasticity, long-term potentiation, consolidation, vocabulary.

4.1.37 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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THE DISORIENTATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL PSYCHE WITH THE IMPERIOUS SOCIO-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT – A STUDY OF BHARATI MUKHERJEE’S ‘JASMINE’

K. JAYA

ABSTRACT

Bharati  Mukherjee stands apart from other female Indian writers due to her involvement with the life of young men and women in Indian cities. She discards all social concerns and asserts that she is interested in individual issues. She is concerned with psychic life of her characters. In her fiction, Mukherjee explores the experience and dilemmas of being an immigrant and the culture shock and alienation it entailed. She deals with the Indian situation, Indian women in the US and the Indian American community. The novel ‘Jasmine’ reveals  her involvement for the upliftment of women who are seen as worst sufferer due to their marital discord. Societal. In Jasmine, Mukherjee explores the theme of identity and assimilation, as the character Jyoti reinvents herself in order to try to fit into American society. She changes her name based on different situations. However, it is meant to stand for the way immigrants feel compelled to perform according to the norms of their new homeland. The frequent changes of name each correspond to a distinct period and person who had great influence in the lead character’s life, for good or for bad. Mukherjee explores the theme of love and devotion, as Jasmine is torn between different men who she cares for in different ways, and is forced to choose whether to stay out of loyalty or to follow her heart.

Key Words:  Mukherjee, immigrants, alienation,  identity and assimilation, 

4.1.38 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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LANGUAGE LATERALISATION; A NEUROLINGUISTIC ANALYSES OF FUNCTIONAL EXCLUSIVITY OF BRAIN

RITIKA SINHA

ABSTRACT

Neurolinguistics studies the brain mechanisms that underlie linguistic competence and language performance. The brain is the most complicated organ of the body which controls motor and sensory activities and guides our thought processes. The cerebral hemispheres of the brain exhibit contralateral control of functions. Functional topography of the brain is asymmetric with the left and the right hemisphere specialized for different functions. This Lateralization of functions is genetically and neurologically conditioned. Lateralization refers to any cognitive function that is localized to one side of the brain. The Language faculty resides in the Left hemisphere which is pre-programmed for language acquisition. Language was the first scientifically proven cognitive element to be localized in the brain. Evidences from the study of brain mapping, brain elasticity, split brain patients, dichotic listening and Aphasics signal the polarity of functions in the Brain hemispheres. Selective impairment following brain damage points to a highly modularized language capability. 

Keywords: Language, Lateralization, Neurolinguistics

4.1.39 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES IN TEACHING, LEARNING AND EVALUATION

KAMALAKAR BABURAO GAIKWAD

ABSTRACT

In present research paper, the researcher has focused on the aspects of definition of e-learning, learning objectives and types of educational objectives of learning such as cognitive, affective and psychological. The prime focus is given on the improving the effectiveness of education through the use of e-learning in present education system. The researcher wants to show E-learning as the pedagogical and didactic method which can train large amount of students.

Key Words: Definition of e-learning, objectives, types of e-learning objectives, the effectiveness of education, pedagogical and didactic method, easy accessibility to education etc.

4.1.40 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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THE UNDETECTABLE ISSUE OF GENDER DISCRIMINATION IN MAHESH DATTANI’S TARA

CHHAGAN LAL & DR. O. P. TIWARI

ABSTRACT

Mahesh Dattani is a well-known celebrated modern Indian – English playwright. His plays always deal with the intricate dynamics of the modern urban family. In his many plays, he aptly deals with various issues like homo sexuality, gender discrimination, and socialism and child sexual exploitation. Dattani is a playwright who challenged the edifice of Indians as they have been presented in the modern English theatre. This paper is a humble attempt to study the gender-based injustice and male child preference over the female child in an Indian family. The play Tara deals with the emotional disjointing of two Siamese twins and the manipulation of their mother and grandfather to favor the boy child over the girl child. This play also deals with the issues of class and society and conventional values.

Key Word -  Urban family, homo sexuality, gender discrimination, socialism, child sexual exploitation, conventional values.

4.1.41 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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REMEMBERING REALISM IN ALICE MUNRO’S OPEN SECRETS, A COLLECTION OF SHORT STORY

D. B. WANKHADE

ABSTRACT

Munro's highly acclaimed first collection of stories, Dance of the Happy Shades in 1968, won the Governor General's Award, then Canada's highest literary prize. That success was followed by Lives of Girls and Women (1971), a collection of interlinked stories. In 1978, Munro's published a collection of interlinked stories Who Do You Think You Are? This book earned Munro a second Governor General's Literary Award. Her most famous Open Secrets in 1994 is a pioneer work in literary art, it includes numerous pieces of prose as Carried Away', A Real Life, The Albanian Virgin, The Jack Randa Hotel, A Wilderness Station, Spaceships Have Landed and so on.

Keywords - Realism, Nostalgia, Identification, Humanism etc.

4.1.42 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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THE COLONIZER’S DOMINANCE IN NGUGI’S WEEP NOT, CHILD

DR. G. VENUGOPAL

ABSTRACT

Weep Not, Child is Ngugi’s first published novel. This novel dramatizes the events of the Mau Mau emergency in Kenya in the nineteen fifties. Ngugi focuses on the family affairs of Ngotho. Ngugi, further, discusses the weaknesses of the Africans themselves and of the Europeans. The novel discloses the involvement of Ngotho’s family in the crisis and suffers the violence it provokes. Ngotho has two wives, Njeri and Nyokabi. He has three sons, Boro, Kori and Kamau by Njeri and one son, Njoroge by Nyokabi. Ngugi explores three separate but related themes: first, the appropriateness of a young Kenyan getting a western education, secondly, the influence of Christianity in the Kenyan context and thirdly, the reasons and prosecution of the independence struggle.

4.1.43 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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MAHASWETA DEVI THE UNFORGETTABLE

DR. K. HARIKISHAN

ABSTRACT

Mahasweta Devi is one of the greatest Bengali writers. She has turned writing into a form of service to the people. She is one of the greatest social activists in India. Though she had never declared anywhere that she is a feminist or a reformer but she dedicated her life to a cause – to fight for the cause of the welfare of the tribal, the downtrodden and the under previleged. She tried hard to protect the rights of the tribes, dalits and the rural poor and the helpless women and  she also strove hard for the eradication of  untouchability, bonded labour, the suppression of women. She wants human treatment to dalits and tribes and women and children.

Keywords: The tribal, The downtrodden, The under previliged, Bonded labour, Suppression of women.

4.1.44 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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LOOKING BEYOND VALMIKI’S TEXT: REVISIONS IN AMISH TRIPATHI’S SCION OF IKSHVAKU

DR. PAYEL DUTTA CHOWDHURY & RASHMI KUMARI

ABSTRACT

Well-known author, Amish Tripathi, famous for his ‘Shiva Trilogy’, has shot into fame once again with the publication of his books on Lord Rama. The first book in this series, Scion of Ikshvaku, (2015) is a revisionist rendering on Rama’s story, bringing within its corpus several untouched perspectives like the portrayal of Roshni, Manthara’s daughter and her gang rape, Surpanakha’s infatuation with Ram and Sita’s portrayal as the Prime Minister of Mithila and a skilled warrior. This paper is an attempt to study Tripathi’s revisionist text vis-à-vis Valmiki’s classical one to explore the various ways that the contemporary text has been used to bring about new perspectives. This paper will also look at Tripathi’s conscious move at giving voices to the silent, muffled or stereotypical voices of the women in the epic.

Keywords:  revisionist, stereotype, perspective, relationship, silent, under-represented

4.1.45 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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TEACHING OF SECOND LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE FOR THE RURAL STUDENTS

S. MUHILAN

ABSTRACT

Innovative technology in a big way could be put to use in the ESL classrooms of India at all levels of education. Teacher will have to be a keen performer himself in the game of communication that second language teaching basically is oriented towards. Teaching of Second language and literature is constantly felt to give to the job a face-lift in all glow and glitter and accompanied genuine promise and its fulfillment. This paper makes an attempt to see in relation to literature teaching, especially prose, poem and short story, as to how strategies could be innovatively and intelligently used at rural classes using technological aids. The methods of English Language Teaching and Literature are discussed under the main points: Textbooks and materials, Composition Classes, Assignments, Classroom Activities, Students’ Seminars, Enriching the Students’ Vocabulary, and Dictionary and Thesaurus Reading.

Key Words: Second Language, Linguistic, Pragmatic, Enhancing, innovative.,

 

4.1.46 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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PHILOSOPHY OF BUDDHISM: AN OVERVIEW

DR. RAVI SANKAR K.

ABSTRACT

During the second half of the first millennium B.C people’s minds were stirred up by the issues related to religion and salvation. There was an intense social, political, economic and religious upheaval. As a consequence, the then contemporary society witnessed many new religious philosophies, out of which Buddhism was one. The preachings of those new religious schools were targeted towards ‘Man and his well-being’.  In the light of the above discussion, the current paper elaborates the core philosophy of Buddhism in a lucid manner. 

4.1.47 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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FICTIONAL MATRICES OF CULTURE DYNAMICS AND ANTI-COLONIAL LONGINGS IN EASTERINE IRALU'S A NAGA VILLAGE REMEMBERED AND CHINUA ACHEBE'S ARROW OF GOD

DR. ARCHANA

ABSTRACT

Tribes have mysterious opinions about the evils. They believe that all natural things have living soul. They also experience that Evils if not appeased injure the humans in several paths. These animist thoughts control the cultural science of mechanical force of the tribes. Colonial rulers in different countries of the world like Indian countries or African countries or elsewhere exploited the tribesmen, read their cultures and made us familiar about alterations in the world. In acting so they encountered opposition sometimes overpowered it and at other times tamed to the hindrance also. Chinua Achebe's Arrow of God (1964) and Easterine Iralu's A Naga Village Remembered (2003) describe animist rituals and tribal opposition to the colonial government in their particular milieus.

Keywords: Tribal, Naga Resistance, Agricultural Activities, Traditional Culture, Celebration. 

4.1.48 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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THE TRADITIONAL BELIEF IN SUDHA MURTHY’S MAHASHWETA

M. BALAMURUGAN & T. ABINAYA

ABSTRACT

Sudha Murthy, a renowned novelist, a short story writer both in Kannada and in English who was awarded Padma Shri for social work and education, R.K Narayan’s  award for literature.  She was a Philanthropist.  Even though, she belonged to a high class society and a chair person in Infosys Foundation, she has dedicated herself to the society to implement techno oriented facilities in teaching for most of the Government schools in Karnataka. She got best teacher award from Karnataka state Government. She also explores the needs of development and humanistic approaches to the people through her writings. Sudha Murthy work discuss about the societal problems and its impacts.   Her work picturize the human belief and values.  It has the essence of Indianess.  They remind us the human values, plainness, importance of friendship, philanthropy, kindness etc. that are forgotten in today’s society.  Likewise, in this novel Mahashweta the author explores how the superstitious belief destroys a girl’s life.  This presentation is based on the traditional belief that changed the protagonist’s track.

Key Words: Philanthropist, humanistic approaches, plainness.

4.1.49 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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CONSTCRUCTIVIST APPROACH AND TEACHERS’ ROLE

KARANDE SHAHAJI RAJARAM

ABSTRACT

Constructivism is basically a theory about how a learner learns. It proposes that learners construct their own knowledge through experiencing things and reflecting on them. Constructivist teaching is based on the belief that learning occurs as learners are actively involved in a process of meaning and knowledge. Constructivism is somewhat related trend in education that can play a dynamic role in the relationship between how teachers teach and how learners learn. The teacher needs to encourage the students and supports them to restructure knowledge. The present research paper focuses the theory of constructivist approach and the role of a teacher.

Key words: Constructivism, process of meaning and knowledge, dynamic role, to  restructure knowledge.

4.1.50 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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ISSUES OF GENDER IN MARY SHELLEY’S FRANKENSTEIN

VIDYA ARJUN DESAI

ABSTRACT

One of the major issues that Mary Shelley handles in Frankenstein, famous novel written in the gothic genre, is the stereotypical gender roles that men and women followed during the Victorian period. It dissects a patriarchal culture that separated sexes and pressured women into dependence on men. Women are presented as angels of full of kindness, compassion, moral guidance and figures of self-sacrifice. The writer characterizes women as passive, submissive and of secondary status compared to her male counterpart. It is highlighted in the novel that if gender roles are sharply caricatured than it leads to the destruction of the family and ultimately the society on a larger scale. The reason the writer gives is that if men and women stick to their individual spheres then it might lead to suppression of identity and loss of mutual understanding. So a peaceful and healthy civil society can only exist if these gender roles are not socially determined but mutually negotiated. My aim in this paper is to study and criticize the various gender issues which Mary Shelley raises in her famous novel Frankenstein. This study will further help in understanding the patriarchal structure of the British society during the Victorian era and how women were the passive victims of male-dominated society.

Keywords: Frankenstein, gender, Victorian era, Mary Shelley, patriarchy.

4.1.51 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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TRADITIONAL GRAMMAR AND ITS DRAWBACKS

RANSHING PRATAP RAMDAS

ABSTRACT

Human interest in the study of a human language is as old as human civilization. The scholars of language study have shown greater interest in the origin of language than in language itself. When we want to study any particular language, we must know the grammar of language which is the basic thing for understanding any language. Behavior of language means how words are formed, how words are related to each other. The study of language has fascinated countless scholars for its complexity. The interest in this kind of language study is as old as Plato. We can observe three ways of language study. The old one is traditional grammar. Traditional grammarians defined English language on framework of the Latin language. They applied Latin Language’s grammatical rules to other languages. The structuralists strongly reacted against the thinking of traditional grammarians. They said that it is wrong to apply one language rules to another language.  The structuralists put forth the drawbacks of Traditional Grammarians in the description of English language. The structuralists named these drawbacks as the ‘Fallacies of Traditional Grammar.

4.1.52 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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ATTRIBUTES – SOFT SKILLS

S. MUTHUKRISHNAN & S. PRESHNEV

ABSTRACT

Technical and job-related skills are mandatory, but they are not sufficient when it comes to finding a job or progressing up the ladder. With the traditional style of leadership has become out of fashion, Managers in all sectors expect their employees to have some extra skills which we call today soft skills. Soft skills is a term which refers to personality traits, social graces, facility with language, personal habits, friendliness, and optimism that mark people to varying degrees. Soft skills are as important as traditional hard skills to an employer regardless of industry or job type. It is to be understood clearly that soft skills complement hard skills. Soft kills are very important in business and corporate culture. It is essential to be technically sound, but one should also have the ability to convey the idea to the masses in the simplest possible manner. Planning is necessary but execution is also equally important. And it takes soft skills to execute any idea because it involves dealing with people directly. For this reason, soft skills are increasingly sought out by employers in addition to standard qualification. Soft skills cannot be taught. However they can be developed through proper training. Majority of the managers observe that they could find workers who have “hard skills” but many potential job seekers lack “soft skills” that a company needs. This paper offers opportunities for the job seekers to understand the importance of soft skills.      

4.1.53 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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MARGARET ATWOOD’S “EVIL WOMEN

R. DHANAPPRIYA & DR. J. UMA SAMUNDEESWARI

ABSTRACT

Atwood addresses a literary tradition and feminist cannon, and she tackles the question of why we perceive powerful woman as threatening beings and relegate them as “evil”. Her characterizations re-signify the evil woman as a character who empowers protagonists to recognize and claim the power that may have stereotypically been cast as male.  In Lady Oracle the protagonists have internalized self-other binary the evil woman established, and their acceptance of their subject position allows the evil woman to maintain the privileged self position. The protagonist’s character development relies on embracing the internalized evil woman so they can finally recognize how they already possess some of these potent characteristics.  She also addresses archetypes and tropes of the evil woman, but I also explore the way Atwood shift the focus from male-female relationship to female –female friendships.

Key words: gender, female struggle, self-identity, cultural myths. 

4.1.54 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LANGUAGE

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TYPES OF COMMUNICATION

DR. SANDHYA R.

ABSTRACT

Man has been using language as a tool of communication to interact with the environment in which he lives and involved in several activities, which are ranging from informal to formal conversation such as gossiping, chatting, meetings, group discussion, presentations, video-conferences and so on. In brief, we need to communicate in order to interact which regulates our social behaviour, though there are a number of means of communication. In it language is the most powerful widely used means through a sophisticated system. In this context, we study the type of communication. We can define communication as a multi-dimensional interactive process of sharing common sets of signs, symbols and language from one person to another or organization to organization which acts as a repository of wisdom, a propeller for the advancement of knowledge and a telescope to view the vision of the future.

Key words: Communication, environment, formal conversation, sophisticated, vision.

4.1.55 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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SUFFERINGS OF FEMALE CHARACTER IN SHASHI DESHPANDE’S THE DARK HOLDS NO TERROR

A. THIRUMANI AARTHILAXMI

ABSTRACT

Women in the Indian society are facing lot of problems and troubles inside the home. Through they are educated, they are easily affected psychologically. Women are suppressed in male dominated society and face many problems such as loss of identity, male domination, martial disharmony, etc. She was unable to take her own decision.  She is imprisoned in the four walls of the house where there is no one else to share her grief. Even if she is provided with the material comforts, she tries hard to let others listen to her agony. Among the recent women novelists, Shashi Deshpande is  one of the famous contemporary Indian novelists in English and   writes about the situation of women and their failures in the fast changing socio-economic milieu of India   In her novel The Dark Holds no Terror, the female character Sarita, undergoes lot of sufferings, loss her identity and finally she was empowered.

4.1.56 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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PRESERVING AND DISSEMINATING CULTURE THROUGH ORAL TRADITION: ROOTS

G. M. MADHAVI

ABSTRACT

Oral tradition is a phenomenal record-keeping. Memory, its repository, is not always reliable for interpretation and perception.  But for the names of people and places and for the sequence of events when there is no written record, the spoken word is indispensable. Oral traditions play a large role in knowing the ancestor’s origins in the novel Roots.  African children have grown up listening to and telling family stories. Oral traditions help African Americans preserve most of their heritage. Haley  knew his ancestors’ African name because Kunta Kinte insisted on keeping it for  his daughter Kizzy, who passed it on to her son George, whose son Tom passed it on to his daughter Cynthia, who passed it on to her grandson Alex.  The story of Kunta, his capture while in search of wood for a drum and his reluctant accommodation to slavery survived over two hundred years through six generations.

Key Words: Oral tradition, African Americans, preserve, disseminate and generations.

4.1.57 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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A HISTORY OF TELUGU DALIT LITERATURE : A SOCIAL PERSPECTIVE

Y. KISHORE

ABSTRACT

This paper offers an analysis of Dalit short stories written in Telugu. While a brief overview of Dalit Literature in India will be given at the outset an attempt is made at examining the discursive formations of Dalit narrative with reference to Telugu Dalit short stories. 

4.1.58 ENGLISH

Area of Article : LITERATURE

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VAIKOM MUHAMMAD BASHEER: THE TRUE LOVER OF NATURE

AJOY THAMBI & DR. DEEPA CAROLINE

ABSTRACT

This paper deals with the dynamic bond between man and nature seen in the works of Basheer. Basheer is read in the light of the basic principles of eco-criticism.His life experiences compelled him to talk about universal themes like nature preservation, afforestation and water conservation. Basheer gives a realistic representation of the life cycle of world. The universe itself is under a cyclic process which is extremely natural and symbiotic. No creatures in the world are useless and they are striving at their level best to maintain the balance of the Eco system. Like a foreteller Basheer remembers the rights of trees, birds and animals. It is an inheritance given by God. He made this prophecy many years back and now human beings are facing dangerous threats from Nature. Here Basheer is seen as his natural self, a man who understands the vastness of the universe and solitude as a micro particle in it-a universe in which he has to co-exist with animals, trees, rocks and birds as equals. Through his works Basheer exalted the need of coexistence and giving equal importance to other creatures in the world. 

Keywords: Vaikom Muhammad Basheer, Nature, Eco-criticism, Rain, Earth, Symbiosis, Co-existence, Afforestation.